Harrisonburg Fountain

Location: Harrisonburg, Virginia, USA

In 1904 the National Woman’s Christian Temperance Union encouraged local chapters to erect fresh water fountains in public venues. The black-painted cast iron drinking fountain located at the southern side of the Court House Square regularly quenched the thirst of citizens as they attended Court or visited the downtown area on business.

An octagonal base supports a single pedestal with attic base. The pedestal lacking any form of decoration rises to an acroter which supports a two tiered octagonal column decorated with floral relief. Lion masks spout water into basins protruding from two sides. Metal cups which are no longer present were suspended by chains attached to rings. The original terminal is a 3 foot high statue of a woman holding a bird. The base at the front of the statue is inscribed with raised letters, “J. W. Fiske 26.28 Park Place New York.” The statue has been identified as Virtue.

After repeated vandalism the head of the statue was replaced in 1995. The head was stolen once again and the right hand holding the bird was also ripped off. Although the head was never found the hand and bird were recovered. The decapitated statue was removed from the fountain in 2004 and stored in the basement of the Rockingham County Courthouse.

The statue was restored by Fine Line Architectural Detailing funded by the Margaret Grattan-Weaver Foundation. The project for restoration includes making a cast of a statue from the same design atop a fountain located in Ligonier Borough, Pennsylvania. Once restored, the statue will be displayed inside the courthouse. The drinking fountain will remain outdoors and be operational.

Glossary

  • Acroter, flat base
  • Attic base, a column base with two rings
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

 

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Babylon Fountain

Location: Babylon, Long Island, New York

The drinking fountain in Babylon was erected at the intersection of Main Street and Fire Island Avenue/Deer Park Avenue. It was funded by the Women’s Exchange, a charitable organization formed to aid genteel women whose financial status had declined.

It was manufactured by Stewart Iron Works in Kentucky, referenced in their catalogue as ‘drinking fountain for man and beast #209’ with a cast iron base and bronze statue; the remaining structure was made of zinc.

On Memorial Day in 1897 a dedication ceremony was held with speeches and patriotic songs, and the American flag draping the fountain was removed. Water flowed from a spout in the base. It was considered a very handsome fountain which beautified the village.

A square base with four short columns supported a dog toothed acroter. Rosettes were carved into each panel between the columns. A single column pedestal contained four inset panels displaying two swans with raised wings that rested on an orb from which rose Neptune’s trident flanked by stylized flowers and bulrushes. Three sides of the structure contained a drinking vessel. At ground level there was a small trough for dogs surmounted by a sculptured dog kennel. A second kennel was also located on an adjacent side. A wide and deep trough decorated with acanthus was available for the use of horses (a dolphin like fish released water from its mouth into the horse trough.) A small basin for humans was decorated with large leaf pattern on the underside. A multi-tiered acroter supported a 36″ tall statue of a woman feeding a dove. Her head was tilted slightly back and she held a seed in her mouth.

In 1914 it was damaged when a trolley from a nearby hamlet overturned onto it. Three years later the State Health Department banned the use of public drinking fountains due to health concerns regarding infectious diseases. It was removed and a flagpole mounted in its place, and at this point in history the fountain became a lost item.

A duplicate fountain and statue was discovered in Ligonier, Pennsylvania, and in 2009 a local committee undertook the task of reconstructing the fountain and founded a Facebook page, The Babylon Village Historic Fountain Reconstruction Project. Due to fundraising, a Suffolk County grant, and the generosity of the people of Ligonier to permit their fountain to be disassembled and the parts cast into molds; a non-functioning replica of the fountain was reinstalled in front of the Village Historical Society on Main Street.

The official unveiling which took place on Memorial Day 2011 mimicked the original ceremony. The Mayor of Babylon, Ralph Scordino, thanked Ligonier Borough for its civic dedication, compassion, and commitment to the preservation of American heritage. A plaque next to fountain reads: this historical reproduction would not have been possible without the help and cooperation of the people of Ligonier, Pennsylvania.

Glossary

  • Acanthus, one of the most common plant forms (deeply cut leaves) to make foliage ornament and decoration
  • Acroter, flat base

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Image Sources

http://thebabylonvillagefountain.blogspot.ca/

https://www.facebook.com/pages/The-Babylon-Village-Historic-Fountain-Reconstruction-Project/161195615969

http://www.newsday.com/long-island/li-life/babylon-s-new-replica-of-1897-fountain-1.2914213#2

Ligonier Fountain

Location: Ligonier, Pennsylvania, USA.

The research for this fountain was very interesting as it is linked to two other fountains. Although the drinking fountains themselves are not identical the terminals for all three hosted the same statue. A mold of the statue in Ligonier was cast to assist in the restoration of the fountains in Harrisonburg, PA and Babylon, NY.

Fundraising for a drinking fountain began in 1913 and on 21 June 1921 the structure was donated by the Ligonier Volunteer Hose Company #1. The fountain was 10 feet tall and provided drinking water for humans, dogs and horses. It was advertised as Man and Beast Fountain #209 by Stewart Iron Works Kentucky. It is located at the north side of the inner diamond facing North Market Street.

A square base with four short columns supported a dog toothed acroter. Rosettes were carved into each panel between the columns. A single column pedestal contained four inset panels displaying two swans with raised wings that rested on an orb from which rose Neptune’s trident flanked by stylized flowers and bulrushes. Three sides of the structure contained a drinking vessel. At ground level there was a small trough for dogs surmounted by a sculptured dog kennel. A second kennel was also located on an adjacent side. A wide and deep trough decorated with acanthus was available for the use of horses. A dolphin like fish released water from its mouth into the horse trough. A small basin for humans was decorated with large leaf pattern on the underside. A multi-tiered acroter supporting a 36″ tall statue of a woman feeding a dove is identified as Girl Feeding Bird #226. A bird perches on her right wrist as she gathers a tunic at her left hip with her left hand. Her head is tilted slightly back and she holds a seed in her mouth. The sculpture is attributed to bronze founder, George Fischer. The original colour scheme was green paint on the female figure and white paint on the bird.

The deep horse trough was removed circa 1999 due to concerns of possible drowning if a child fell in. Four years later in the winter of 2003, a State Department of Transportation vehicle destroyed the structure when the snow blade hit the fountain. The remains of the fountain were removed and stored in a garage until Stewart Iron Works was hired to repair it.

In 2009 the fountain was shipped to Stewart Iron Works in Covington, KY to be dismantled , cleaned and castings made for a replica in Babylon, Long Island, NY.

It was returned to Town Square in 2010, and a brass plaque was mounted documenting the donation by Ligonier Volunteer Hose Co. No. 1 firefighters in 1921.

Glossary

  • Acanthus, one of the most common plant forms (deeply cut leaves) to make foliage ornament and decoration
  • Acroter, flat base

 

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John McTaggart Memorial Drinking Fountain

Location: Barr, Ayrshire

Located in this small Ayrshire town is a drinking fountain dedicated to a local man who was killed in the Boer War.

Casting number 8 from William MacFarlane’s catalogue is 9 feet 6 inches high. The structure consists of four columns, from the capitals of which consoles with griffin terminals unite with arches formed of decorated mouldings. On two of the sides provision was made for receiving an inscription using raised metal letters; whilst on the other two sides was the useful monition, Keep the pavement dry. Civic virtues such as temperance were often extolled in inscriptions on drinking fountains. Cartouches contained within each lunette host the image of a crane, and a shield with a dedication to John McTaggart; In memory of / John McTaggart / Lance-Corporal 1st. K.O.S.B. / a native of Barr / who died in war / at Bloemfontein / South Africa / 1901 / Erected  by the / people of/ Barr.

Lance-Corporal John McTaggart is listed as having died of disease on 31st May 1901. During the Boer War, more men died from disease than during combat. A massive outbreak of typhoid fever borne of contaminated water entered Bloemfontein, and the British Army suffered huge losses of approximately 6000 soldiers. Within the Bloemfontein Cemetery there is a garden of remembrance identifying all the men who succumbed during the war.

Under the canopy stands the font (casting number 7) 5 foot 8 inches high, a single pedestal with four decorative columns rising from an octagonal base. Four salamanders descend the fountain pedestal as a symbol of courage and bravery. The basin has a scalloped edge and decorative relief. A central urn with four projecting tendrils offer drinking cups suspended by chains. The terminal is a crane. The structure is surmounted by an open filigree dome, the apex being an imperial crown.

Symbolism was popular in Victorian times. Griffins are symbolic of guardians of priceless possessions, salamanders display bravery and courage that cannot be extinguished by fire, and cranes are recognized as a symbol of vigilance.

Glossary

  • Capital: The top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Cartouche, a structure or figure, often in the shape of an oval shield or oblong scroll, used as an architectural or graphic ornament or to bear a design or inscription
  • Console: a decorative bracket support element
  • Filigree, fine ornamental work
  • Fret, running or repeated ornament
  • Griffin, winged lion denotes vigilance and strength, guards treasure and priceless possessions
  • Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

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Image Sources

http://fjstuart.blogspot.ca/2013/04/two-memorials-and-unusual-bridge.html?showComment=1409591500536#c1558896445780414452

http://www.geograph.ie/photo/269595

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_memorial_drinking_fountain_in_Barr_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1004924.jpg

http://warmemscot.s4.bizhat.com/warmemscot-ftopic4714.html

http://www.barrvillage.co.uk/

http://www.angloboerwar.com/other-information/105-graves-and-memorials/2046-bloemfontein-cemetery

 

Formby Drinking Fountain

Location: Port Adelaide, South Australia

John Formby was a J.P. and the Mayor of Port Adelaide for four successive years, 1870-1873. As a mark of appreciation, a public subscription raised money ‘to order a handsome fountain from Scotland’. The location was chosen to serve the large number of men who frequently worked on North Parade opposite Nelson Street. It was unveiled on Saturday 27 May 1877 by the Mayor in the presence of Mr. Formby.

Casting number 8 from William MacFarlane’s catalogue is seated on a three tiered plinth, the first from the ground was Macclesfield marble, and the other two were Mintaro slate. It is 9 feet 6 inches high and consists of four columns, from the capitals of which consoles with griffin terminals unite with arches formed of decorated mouldings.

Cartouches contained within each lunette host the image of a crane, and an open bible displaying a verse from St. John’s Gospel chapter 4 verse 14, Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again but whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst.’ A dedication crest in one of the lunettes states, Erected / by public subscription / to / John Formby Esq. J.P. / Mayor / 1870-1-2&3. A second lunette displays the Coat of Arms for Port Adelaide, depicting a crest held by an Aboriginal man and a sailor with the motto Haud pluribus impaSecond to none. On two of the sides provision was made for receiving an inscription using raised metal letters; whilst on the other two sides was the useful monition, Keep the pavement dry. Civic virtues such as temperance were often extolled in inscriptions on drinking fountains. The structure is surmounted by an open filigree dome, the apex being an imperial crown.

Under the canopy stands the font (casting number 6) 4 foot 11 inches high, a single pedestal with four decorative columns rising from an octagonal base. Four salamanders descend the fountain pedestal as a symbol of courage and bravery. The basin has a scalloped edge and decorative relief. The original design was a central urn with four projecting tendrils offering drinking cups suspended by chains. Water flowed when a knob beneath the spout was pressed. In the interest of public hygiene the original fountain was replaced with a bubbler.

Symbolism was popular in Victorian times. Griffins are symbolic of guardians of priceless possessions, salamanders display bravery and courage that cannot be extinguished by fire.

A National Trust marker is set into the ground beneath the coat of arms. The fountain is still visible outside the Port Adelaide Police Complex at the intersection of St. Vincent St. and Lipson Street.

Glossary

  • Capital: The top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Cartouche, a structure or figure, often in the shape of an oval shield or oblong scroll, used as an architectural or graphic ornament or to bear a design or inscription
  • Console: a decorative bracket support element
  • Filigree, fine ornamental work
  • Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

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Image Sources

https://www.flickr.com/photos/mikecogh/3418055844/in/gallery-47101250@N00-72157626477359336/

http://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WM9KDC_National_Trust_Port_Adelaide_Fountain

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cast_iron_drinking_fountain_port_adelaide.jpg

 

Market Square Fountain

 Location: Northampton, Northamptonshire, England

This is a lost fountain. The only part remaining is an engraved plaque which is retained at the Abington Museum: Presented to / the Mayor and / Corporation / in trust for the inhabitants / by Samuel Isaac / Captn. Commandt. / of the 5th Corps of / Northamptonshire / Rifle Volunteers / 1863.

The fountain was manufactured by the Eagle Foundry of Northampton. There is a historic tale that the owners and brothers, Edward and William Barwell, made two fountains. The second fountain sank during the voyage to Australia.

The fountain was erectedin 1863 at the south-side of the Market Square to commemorate the marriage of Prince Albert to Princess Alexandra of Denmark. It was no ordinary cast-iron fountain, 45 feet high and 19 feet wide with many of the enrichments cast in valuable bronze.

The structure was seated on an octagonal plinth with four steps leading to the base of the fountain which formed a St. Andrew’s cross. A decorative sculptured jamb was located on each corner. Drinking basins were located on the north and south sides and shields bearing inscriptions on the east and west sides. Emblems, masks, and shields containing the Borough’s coat of arms and the crest of Captain Samuel Isaac were visible on the lower parts of the structure.

Four tazzas with water fountains poured water into basins which then fell into masks and finally into the drinking fountain basin. The acroter supported a highly decorative ornamental column with a gilt globe lantern, 4 feet in diameter, surmounted by a Maltese cross.

In 1930 the Market Square fountain was renovated, and the globe lamp which had already been replaced by 1900 was replaced once again with four suspended lamps.

After being a much loved focal point of the Market Place for almost a century, the cast iron fountain was removed in 1962 due to repeated vandalism and the opinion that the structure was unsafe. This opinion was proven false when it took several days, six men, a crane and a blowtorch to remove it.

The stone steps remained and were used by market traders to stack their goods. In due time the steps and the cobbles in the square were also removed leaving no vestige of the fountain ever being there.

Glossary

  • Acroter, flat base
  • Jamb, a projecting vertical post containing sculpture
  • Maltese cross, a cross with four arms of equal length, each arm in a “V” shape, and eight points
  • Mask, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face, or head, of a human being or an animal
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests.
  • Tazza, A shallow saucer-like dish either mounted on a stem and foot, or on a foot alone.

 

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Image Sources

https://www.flickr.com/photos/nfhs/with/7716180100/

https://www.facebook.com/groups/1444977242404160/photos/

 

Tomintoul Fountain

Location: Tomintoul, Moray, Scotland

The town of Tomintoul (famous for the Glenlivet Estate and renowned whisky of the same name) was originally designed by the Duke of Gordon in the 18th century with a grassy square which formed a focal point in the 40 foot wide Main Street.

The drinking fountain donated by Robert Gordon is casting #41 from the Lion Foundry and was erected in the Square in 1915.

The fountain is 12 ft 8 ins high and stands on a square stone base upon which is a square grate. The central column is decorated with palmette and acanthus relief. Quatrefoil basins are supported by a square base with chamfered corners. Panels above each basin are decorated with floral relief divided into sections by a compass cross. The centre circle contains a lion mask with self closing tap from which water spouts. A black dedication plaque is on two sides.

The capital supports a multi-level acroter surmounted by the figure of a woman dressed in flowing robes holding an olive branch in her left hand while supporting an urn on her head with her right hand.

The two cast-iron stools were originally located beneath the basins to assist children and are inscribed with the words, ‘Step Up Bairns’

The fountain was listed a Category C historic building on 9 November 1987.

Glossary

  • Acanthus, one of the most common plant forms (deeply cut leaves) to make foliage ornament and decoration
  • Acroter, flat base
  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Chamfered, a beveled edge connecting two surfaces
  • Compass cross, a cross of equal vertical and horizontal lengths, concentric with and overlaying a circle.
  • Palmette, a decorative motif resembling the fan shaped leaves of a palm tree
  • Quatrefoil, a type of decorative framework consisting of a symmetrical shape which forms the overall outline of four partially-overlapping circles of the same diameter

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Image Sources

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ornamental_Drinking_Fountain,_Tomintoul_-_geograph.org.uk_-_264126.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Drinking_Fountain_at_Tomintoul_-_geograph.org.uk_-_588977.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ornamental_drinking_fountain,_Tomintoul_-_geograph.org.uk_-_260054.jpg

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/2227767

 

Pearson Park Fountain

Location: Kingston-upon-Hull, England

Henry John Atkinson, a ship owner and a politician who was elected Mayor of Kingston-upon-Hull in 1864 and 1865, presented this fountain to the town in 1864. It was erected in Pearson Park and stands on a two tiered square plinth.

Casting number 8 from William MacFarlane’s catalogue is 9 feet 6 inches high. The structure consists of four columns, from the capitals of which consoles with griffin terminals unite with arches formed of decorated mouldings. Cartouches contained within each lunette host the image of a crane, a dedication shield with the inscription, Presented by Henry John Atkinson 1864, the town’s coat of arms represented by three stacked crowns, and an open bible displaying a verse from St. John’s Gospel chapter 4 verse 14, ‘Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again but whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst.’ The structure is surmounted by an open filigree dome. The original terminal of an imperial crown is missing.

Under the canopy stands the font (casting number 7) 5 foot 8 inches high, a single pedestal with four decorative columns rising from an octagonal base. Four salamanders descend the fountain pedestal as a symbol of courage and bravery. The basin has a scalloped edge and decorative relief. A central globular urn with four projecting tendrils originally offered drinking cups suspended by chains. The standard terminal with this design was a crane surmounted on an urn.

Symbolism was popular in Victorian times. Griffins are symbolic of guardians of priceless possessions, salamanders display bravery and courage that cannot be extinguished by fire, and cranes are recognized as a symbol of vigilance.

The fountain was recorded as a Grade II listed building in 1994. It was restored in 2008 by T.H. Dick & Co. Ltd. under the management of a charitable trust of the City Council, and the Heritage Lottery Fund.

Glossary

  • Capital: The top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Cartouche, a structure or figure, often in the shape of an oval shield or oblong scroll, used as an architectural or graphic ornament or to bear a design or inscription
  • Console: a decorative bracket support element
  • Filigree, fine ornamental work
  • Fret, running or repeated ornament
  • Griffin, winged lion denotes vigilance and strength, guards treasure and priceless possessions
  • Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

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Image Sources

http://www.paul-gibson.com/streets-and-architecture/fountains.php

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/3845760

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/718450

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/218373

Alum Chine Fountain

Location: Alum Chine, Westbourne, Bournemouth, Dorset, England

A chine is a steep dry river valley. Alum Chine is the largest of four chines within the Bournemouth area.

This 20th century drinking fountain is located at the southern end of Alum Chine near the beach. It was manufactured by Andrew Handyside’s Britannia Foundry and is a modified version of design number 24. The Company’s stamp is displayed on two sides.

The 8 foot high cast iron fountain rests on a concrete foundation inset into a small walled recess (sand has now obliterated the wall and foundation.) The multi-tiered rectangular pedestal has a square base with chamfered corners. A panel has been created on all four sides with the application of a raised border. The panel on two of the four sides is empty and the remaining two panels contain a protruding half basin with fluted edge and an inverted finial. The water spout and cup holders are missing. In their place is a plaque providing data of the manufacture and history of the fountain. The body of the pedestal is edged with sculptured fasces.

A multi-level acroter originally supported a terminal of two dolphins intertwined around a trident. Photographic evidence reveals that the trident and part of a dolphin’s tail have been missing for many years.

With exposure to the sea and weather the cast iron rusted and a fresh coat of paint applied. Although no restoration has been attempted it has regained a little of its dignity.

Glossary

  • Acroter, flat base
  • Fasces, a bound bundle of rods
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

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Image Sources

Alum Chine, Westbourne, Bournemouth, Dorset

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1501474

Alum Chine - Bournemouth ... dolphins - Handyside & Co.

Crocodile Fountain

Location: Concarneau, Brittany, France

The historical town of Concarneau was once a centre for shipbuilding and today is a large fishing port. Part of the town is behind a walled fortification which has been in existence since the 17th century. Known as the Ville Close it sits on an island in the harbour which is reached via a drawbridge.

Within the Ville Close at the  is a drinking fountain which was erected in 1856 to provide drinking water to the inhabitants. It was originally erected on the mainland at Pénéroff Place Saint-Guénoléquay where fishermen utilized it before heading out to sea. The fountain was relocated behind the walled town sometime between the post-war period and the1960s.

The fountain approximately 8 feet high is seated on an octagonal granite basin base designed by the famous architect Joseph Bigot. The drinking fountain is cast iron and is the work of the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Claude Eugène Guillaume.

The rectangular column with attic base has a square foundation with chamfered corners and is surmounted by a lamp. On two sides a shield contains sculptured water lilies and bulrushes. The alternate sides containing the drinking fountains are more elaborate.

Floral relief is visible at the base of the shield which contains a human mask. A brass tap emerges from the mouth of the mask to release drinking water which then flows into a drain in the granite base. Two winged cherubs holding ribbons of flowers are seated above the panel. An acroter with chamfered corners supports statuary of a turtle and an otter in the company of a crocodile with head raised and mouth open. A fish is held between its teeth. The lamp terminal is surmounted on the fish.

The square and drinking fountain were restored in 2011.

Glossary

  • Acroter, flat base
  • Attic base, A column base with two rings
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

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Image Sources

http://paris1972.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/concarneau-de-pl-du-petit-chateau-to-rue-vauban-jan13.jpg

https://www.flickr.com/photos/thedouglascampbellshow/3121908610/

https://www.facebook.com/tourisme.concarneau/timeline

http://photosfrancecotesouest.eklablog.fr/photo-de-la-fontaine-aux-crocodiles-de-concarneau-ville-close-a66147977

http://www.leglobeflyer.com/reportage-2-199.html

https://www.flickr.com/photos/21057963@N08/8558209622

 

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