Location: Airdrie, Lanarkshire, Scotland
Two cast iron drinking fountains erected in Airdrie in 1865 were removed at the beginning of the 20th century, possibly to be melted down for armaments during the World Wars.
Old Cross/Top Cross
A large fountain was located at the intersection of the High Street and Bridge Street known as the Old Cross. The structure was a design registered by George Smith & Co. manufactured by the Sun Foundry. It was seated on a two tiered octagonal plinth adjacent to the Old Cross Bar public house.
A compass cross base with canted corners supported a central pedestal and four columns decorated with diamond frieze and nail head molding. The font (design number 13) was a large basin with dog tooth relief on the rim, partitioned by four foliate consoles from which cups were suspended on chains. Shell motif spouts on each side released water flow.
A central column with engraved dedication supported an inverted umbrella-style canopy with highly decorated acanthus scrollwork. The cornice was intricate open fret detail with 4 consoles supporting glass globes lanterns. The dome consisted of 8 panels rising to two bands; one of open filigree and the other engraved bas-relief. An ogee roof supported the lamp finial with crown and pyramid apex.
The second drinking fountain was erected at the intersection of Graham Street and Stirling Street known as the New Cross. This area, also known as The Top Cross, was the Airdrie to Coatbridge tramway.
Drinking fountain number 8 from Walter Macfarlane & Co.’s catalogue is 9 feet 6 inches high and was manufactured at the Saracen Foundry at Possilpark in Glasgow. The structure consists of four columns, from the capitals of which consoles with griffin terminals unite with arches formed of decorated mouldings.
Rope moulded cartouches contained within each lunette host the image of a crane or optional memorial shields. On two of the sides provision was made for receiving an inscription using raised metal letters; whilst on the other two sides was the useful monition, Keep The Pavement Dry. Civic virtues such as temperance were often extolled in inscriptions on drinking fountains. The structure is surmounted by an open filigree dome with a crown and lantern finial.
Under the canopy stands the font (design number 7), 5 foot 8 inches high. The basin which has a scalloped edge and decorative relief is supported by a single decorative pedestal with four pilasters and four descending salamanders. A central urn with four consoles offer drinking cups suspended by chains. The terminal which was originally a crane appears to have been replaced by a bowl by 1902.
Symbolism was popular in Victorian times. Griffins are symbolic of guardians of priceless possessions, salamanders display bravery and courage that cannot be extinguished by fire, and cranes are recognized as a symbol of vigilance.
- Acanthus, one of the most common plant forms (deeply cut leaves) to make foliage ornament and decoration
- Bas-relief, sculpted material that has been raised from the background to create a slight projection from the surface
- Canted corner, an angled surface which cuts of a corner
- Capital: The top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
- Cartouche, a structure or figure, often in the shape of an oval shield or oblong scroll, used as an architectural or graphic ornament or to bear a design or inscription
- Compass cross, a cross of equal vertical and horizontal lengths, concentric with and overlaying a circle.
- Console: a decorative bracket support element
- Filigree, fine ornamental work
- Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
- Foliate, decorated with leaves or leaf like motif
- Fret, running or repeated ornament
- Frieze, the horizontal part of a classical moulding just below the cornice, often decorated with carvings
- Griffin, winged lion denotes vigilance and strength, guards treasure and priceless possessions
- Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
- Ogee, curve with a concave
- Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
- Pilaster, a column form that is only ornamental and not supporting a structure
- Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests.
- Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal