Monthly Archives: April 2017

Faversham Town Pump

Location: Faversham, Kent, England

Before the arrival of a piped water supply in 1864, local households were dependent for their supply of water on pumps and wells. The first pump on the site of the Market Place next to Guildhall, provided by a local benefactor in 1635, was replaced by the present elaborate cow tailed pump in 1855.

FAVERSHAM_1900_books google

Circa 1900

Although this pump design is illustrated as #8 in the catalogue of George Smith & Co., the company did not exist until 1858, and it is therefore likely that the pattern was purchased from an existing iron foundry (possibly Dartford Iron Works; as the owner, John Hall, also owned a paper mill and a gunpowder factory in Faversham.)

Design #8 from the catalogue of George Smith & Co. was described as a drinking fountain and lamp combined. This octagonal shaped drinking fountain (cow tailed pump) is a single pedestal with attic base and inset arched panels which offered space for dedications. Entablature with bolt consoles sit beneath an ogee cupola with panels of fleur de lys motif. Yoke maintenance arms that originally supported the lamp-lighter are still in evidence. The original finial was a six sided glass pane lantern which no longer exists. The floral relief decorated column is capped with a ball finial. A small trough set into the base of the structure was for the use of dogs.

The structure was recorded as a Grade II historic building on 3 August 1972.

Glossary

  • Attic base, a column base with two rings
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Cupola, a small, domed structure on top of a roof.
  • Entablature, moldings and bands which lie horizontally above columns
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Ogee, curve with a concave
  • Yoke maintenance arms, the bars near the top of a street light which supported the lamplighter’s ladder
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Toll Green Pump

Location: Elie, Fife, Scotland

The cast iron structure at Toll Green in Elie often referred to as a drinking fountain was actually a cow tailed pump. It was erected in 1869 as engraved on the base; George Smith & Co Sun Foundry Glasgow 1869.

ELIE_1900s_flickr dodfather

Circa 1900. Used with permission. Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/dodfather/6583802409/

This octagonal shaped pump is design #8 from the catalogue of George Smith & Co. The single pillar with attic base hosted 8 inset arched panels of which six were for dedication. Two panels were used for the water spout and the cow tailed lever. When the pump was no longer used to supply water, these were removed and replaced with blank panels. Entablature with bolt consoles sits beneath an ogee cupola with alternate panels of fleur de lys motif.

A single column supported a six sided glass pane lantern which was capped with a ball and spike finial. The lamp has been replaced with an open sphere and spike finial atop a column with floral relief. Yoke maintenance arms that originally supported the lamp-lighter’s ladder are still in evidence. A small trough set into the base of the structure was for the use of dogs.

In 2001 Elie and Earlsferry Community Council raised funds to refurbish the pump as a millennium project. Acknowledged as the only remaining example of this design in Scotland, it was recorded as a Category C historic building on 9 August 2012.

Glossary

  • Attic base, a column base with two rings
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Cupola, a small, domed structure on top of a roof.
  • Entablature, moldings and bands which lie horizontally above columns
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Ogee, curve with a concave
  • Yoke maintenance arms, the bars near the top of a street light which supported the lamplighter’s ladder

Melton Mowbray Golden Jubilee Fountain

Location: Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire, England

I have been unable to find any images of this drinking fountain; however, according to the Record Office for Leicestershire, Leicester and Rutland the design would appear to be a modification of #27 from the catalogue of George Smith & Co. described as a drinking fountain and lamp combined. It was installed on the footpath at the Market Place in Melton Mowbray to commemorate Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee in 1887.

Sun_ 27

Manufactured at the Sun Foundry in Glasgow, the installation was completed by local companies, C. Barnes, builder; John Anderson, plumber & glazier; and the Melton Mowbray Gas Light and Coke Company. The pump was unpopular with local tradesmen who complained that children played in the water and threw water on the shop windows. It was removed to a local park named Play Close and later recycled during World War II to assist in the manufacture of armaments.

This octagonal shaped drinking fountain was a single pedestal with attic base that hosted a small trough at ground level for the use of dogs. Inset arched panels offered space for dedications, and the proposed design below includes a bas-relief profile of Queen Victoria. Two demi-lune basins were offered with drinking cups suspended by chains. Entablature with bolt consoles sat beneath an ogee cupola with panels of fleur de lys motif. The finial was a six sided glass pane lantern capped with a ball and spike finial. The image below appears to show a dedication inscribed on the base.

melton mowbray_jubileefountain

Glossary

  • Attic base, a column base with two rings
  • Bas-relief, sculpted material that has been raised from the background to create a slight projection from the surface
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Cupola, a small, domed structure on top of a roof.
  • Entablature, moldings and bands which lie horizontally above columns
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Ogee, curve with a concave

Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee Horse Trough and Lamp Standard

Location: Longford, Tasmania

To celebrate Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee, a lamp was erected on 23 June 1887 in front of Mr. Whitfield’s dispensary on the corner of Wellington and Marlborough Streets in Longford. Mr. Whitfield subsequently donated ornamental fixtures for the electric light in 1911.

Longford2

In 1896, Mr. J. Smale secured public subscriptions to erect a fountain at the site of the Jubilee lamp to celebrate Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee in 1897. The structure was manufactured by Bogle & Clark Engineers for Longford Water Trust. The circular cast iron basin was 2 ft. 6 in high and 4ft 6 in in diameter with a depth of 10ins. It was supported by a central fluted column and four legs in the form of horses’ hooves. The column rising from the basin supported the lamp. Yoke maintenance arms were positioned beneath the lantern.

The structure having been built to accommodate cattle was no match for the arrival of the motor car. In May 1924, a resident backed his car into it with such force that the fountain was dislodged and the lamp-post broken. Five years later in 1929 the drinking fountain was again repaired after being badly damaged in a collision only to suffer the same fate in 1939 when another motor vehicle collided with it in the early hours of the morning. It was moved 10 feet by the impact and badly damaged. At that time, it was decided to disconnect the water supply to prevent cows from gathering to drink as a separate water source was available for cattle a short distance away.

The trough was restored in 1988 by Glasgow Engineering (previously known as Bogle & Clark) as part of Australia’s bicentennial celebrations. It is located in the area known as Heritage Corner.

Glossary

  • Fluted, a long rounded groove
  • Yoke maintenance arms, the bars near the top of the street light which supported the lamplighter’s ladder

 


Cameron Memorial Fountain

Location: Launceston, Tasmania

The drinking fountain/horse trough at the corner of St John and Patterson Streets in Launceston was donated to the town in 1884 by Emma Walker in memory of her late father John Cameron Esquire JP., a merchant, an investor in real estate, and a Justice of the Peace. The fountain was erected in 1885 in front of the Post Office.

The trough was moved circa 1938 as it was seldom used in that part of the city. It was relocated to the Marine Board at Lower St. John Street, near the Customs House, Esplanade where there were still numerous horse drawn vehicles in the vicinity of the wharves. When the Sewerage Treatment plant was later built on that site it was given a temporary home in the Trustees Court near Centreway Arcade.

In 1964 the fountain was moved again to the rear of Franklin House Museum which is owned by the National Trust at Youngtown. It is currently located near the single storey schoolhouse, having been donated by the Launceston City Council. Following a restoration appeal, an authentic lamp was purchased at auction and restored by volunteers Ian Smith and David Ragan.

The fountain is design #31 from the catalogue of Walter MacFarlane’s Saracen Foundry in Glasgow. Seated on a circular stone plinth, the wide base is in the form of a St. Andrew’s cross with four lion jambs supporting four elaborately decorated quatrefoil basins for horses. The stanchion is decorated with bands of acanthus and alternating panels of cranes and swans.

Four consoles protrude from a circular fluted shaft to suspend drinking cups on chains. The standard design was offered with a round lamp. However, Emma decided that it would be better to have one with panes, in case of breakage, and requested that the monogram J.C. be engraved on each pane. A shield was mounted to the column with the inscription, This / Fountain Is Erected / To The Memory Of / The Late / John Cameron / Of This Town / By His Daughter / Emma / 1884

franklin house_tasfhs

Glossary:

  • Acanthus, one of the most common plant forms (deeply cut leaves) to make foliage ornament and decoration
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Fluted Shaft, a long rounded groove decorating the shaft of a column
  • Jamb, a projecting vertical post containing sculpture
  • Quatrefoil, a type of decorative framework consisting of a symmetrical shape which forms the overall outline of four partially-overlapping circles of the same diameter
  • Stanchion, upright bar or post providing support

 

 


Launceston Design #27

Location: Launceston, Tasmania

Launceston was a city rife with drinking fountains/horse trough combinations in the 19th century, and design number 27 from the catalogue of Walter Macfarlane & Co. was a popular purchase. This first image is from the late 1800s near the Launceston and Western Railway station on Invermay Road. It was donated by The Society For The Prevention Of Cruelty To Animals for the use of travelling stock. Unfortunately, in 1910, it was removed to allow for construction of the Launceston Municipal Tramway. It was sold as scrap metal and no longer exists.

Invermay rd

Another example of the trough with a gas lamp was donated to the town by Alderman Adye Douglas Esq. and officially unveiled on 30 November 1883 (the following year, he became Premier of Tasmania). It was erected on the High Street, and although the location was chosen to allow light to be cast on Lawrence Street, High Street, Elphin Road, and Brisbane Street, its suitability was questioned as it was believed that horses stopping to drink would hinder other traffic in the street. In the year 1910, prior to the opening of the Tramway, this fountain was also moved to allow for construction.

GE_John HUtton2

Used with permission, John Hutton, Glasgow Engineering

The original 18 ft. drinking fountain was a modified version of design number 27 manufactured by the Saracen Foundry, Glasgow. The design was well suited for Street Crossings, Squares, Market Places, etc., as it afforded drinking accommodation for a large number of horses and drivers, and effectively lit a wide space with the least possible obstruction to other traffic.

The fountain was situated on a concrete plinth providing a drinking trough for horses with four small basins for dogs at ground level. The 6 feet 6 inches in diameter trough was a circular cast iron basin supported on legs in the form of horses’ hooves. The water was regulated by a small patent cistern, which was self-acting, and when the troughs were full the ball rose and shut the water off.

The central stanchion with four decorative consoles suspended cups allowing humans to drink. The water flow was operated with two bib valves which released water when pressed. A memorial shield painted brown was situated at the base of the fluted column inscribed with gold letters; Presented / To The Town Of Launceston / By / Adye Douglas Esq M.H.A. / An Alderman Of The Town / From Its Incorporation / Alfred Harrap / Mayor / C. W. Rocher / Town Clerk / 1883. The column was originally capped with an octagonal gilded lamp roofed in with scales of opal glass (design number 223). The lantern which cast the light downwards was surmounted with a crown terminal.

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The structure changed throughout the years, and at one point in history, the lamp pillar was removed; replaced with a large basin decorated with lion mascarons and painted green.

Glasgow Engineering (established in 1892 in Launceston) was contracted by Launceston City Council to restore it to its original design. The restoration work was done to a high standard by recasting parts in cast iron and re-manufacturing the lamp. Glasgow Engineering donated $4000 to the project to bolster the limited funds of the Council. The water trough was installed on Sunday 12th October 2008 in its original location.

Many thanks to John Hutton, Managing Director of Glasgow Engineering, who kindly shared information and photographs of the structure. Detailed images of the restoration work can be viewed at https://www.pinterest.com/glasgowengineer/fabrication-shopheritage-conservation-work-water-t/

Glossary

  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Mascaron, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face or head of a human being or an animal
  • Plinth, Flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests.
  • Stanchion, an upright bar or post providing support
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

 


Shildon Drinking Fountain

Location: Shildon, Durham, England

The 19th century drinking fountain located in Timothy Hackworth Park was donated by the Committee of the Old Shildon Workingmen’s Club for the enjoyment of the people of Shildon.

Erected in 1914, the canopied drinking fountain is design number 21 (18 feet by 4 feet) from Walter Macfarlane &Co.’s catalog manufactured by the Saracen Foundry in Glasgow, Scotland. Seated on a two tiered octagonal plinth, the canopy is supported by eight columns with griffin terminals which are positioned over capitals with foliage frieze above square bases.

1965

The structure was listed as a Grade II historic building on 24 February 1986. The structure deteriorated over time and the griffins were stolen.

2001

Photograph taken 13 March 2001 © Mr Alan Bradley LRPS

During refurbishment of the park in 2003, the drinking fountain was also restored. The highly decorated cusped arches are trimmed with rope mouldings which display lunettes with alternate images of cranes and optional memorial shields. The shields in this instance display the Royal George Engine, the first steam engine cheaper than horse power, which was designed by Timothy Hackworth, a pioneering railway engineer. A second shield is inscribed Presented / To The / Inhabitants Of Shildon / By The / Members Of The Old Shildon / Workmen’s Club / November / 1914. There is also a shield commemorating the mining profession which was predominant in the area.

On each side arch faceplates provided a flat surface for inscription using raised metal letters; often the useful monition, Keep The Pavement Dry. Civic virtues such as temperance were often extolled in inscriptions on drinking fountains. Doves and flowers offer decorative relief on the circular, open filigree, ribbed dome which is surmounted with a vase and spiked obelisk finial.

Under the canopy stands font, casting number 7. The 5 ft 8ins high font is a single decorative pedestal with four pilasters and descending salamander relief supporting a basin 2 ft 6 ins in diameter. The interior surface of the scalloped edge basin is engraved with decorative relief, and a sculptured vase is terminated by the figure of a crane. Four elaborate consoles originally supported drinking cups on chains. Water flowed from a spout into the drinking cup by pressing its edge against a projecting stud below the spout. The self-closing valve allowed for operation with only one hand. The cups were removed due to recurring epidemics of Scarlet Fever which spread quickly and was often fatal.

Symbolism was popular in Victorian times. Griffins are symbolic of guardians of priceless possessions; lions are symbolic of guardianship; and doves are synonymous with peace. Cranes are recognized as a symbol of vigilance and are often depicted standing on one leg while holding a stone in the claws of the other foot. Legend states that if the watchful crane fell asleep the stone would fall and waken the bird.

Glossary

  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Cartouche, a structure or figure, often in the shape of an oval shield or oblong scroll, used as an architectural or graphic ornament or to bear a design or inscription.
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Cusped Arch, the point of intersection of lobed or scalloped forms
  • Filigree, fine ornamental work
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Fret, running or repeated ornament
  • Frieze, the horizontal part of a classical moulding just below the cornice, often decorated with carvings
  • Griffin, winged lion denotes vigilance and strength, guards treasure and priceless possessions
  • Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
  • Obelisk, a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape at the top
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Pilaster, a column form that is only ornamental and not supporting a structure
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal