Category Archives: Architecture

Barlow’s Memorial Drinking Fountain

Location: Barlow, Oregon, USA

Samuel Kimbrough Barlow, the patriarch of the Barlow family, was a pioneer in 1845 who established Barlow Road, part of the Oregon Trail which improved the journey of wagons crossing the Cascade Mountain Range. He was appointed Justice of the Peace and purchased land which eventually became the town of Barlow.

His son, William, mapped the town and built the family mansion where he planted an avenue of black walnut trees. He was associated with the organization of the state fair, the first woolen mill in Oregon, and the first telegraph line.

The cast iron drinking fountain located on Main Street at the intersection of Washington and Harvard Streets in Brookline Village (officially called Harvard Square) was donated to the City of Barlow in 1904 by Mary Susannah Barlow as a tribute to her parents; William who died in 1904 and Martha who died in 1901.

In 1957 Barlow City Council wanted to remove the old fountain; however at the request of W.B. Tull, a grandson of Martha Ann Barlow, the city was encouraged to restore it.

The fountain is seated on an octagonal stone plinth. Dates engraved on the stone indicate the year of death of Mary’s beloved parents: 1901 Barlow / 1904 Barlow. The octagonal base hosts a trough for dogs at ground level, and above eight sides offer panels for dedication.

The pedestal narrows above a cornice with attic base. A large fluted trough is situated on one side of the pedestal with a smaller basin on the opposite side for use by humans. The pedestal is enriched with bas-relief decoration, and the capital supports a four sided cavetto finial surmounted by an orb.

A nearby marker details the history of the drinking fountain:
Barlow’s Fountain
The historic Barlow fountain was donated to the City of Barlow in 1904 by Mary Susannah Barlow as a tribute to her parents who platted the city in 1891.
William Barlow-son of Susannah Lee and Samuel Kimbrough Barlow pioneer of 1845 and builder of The Barlow Road.
Martha Ann Partlow Barlow – the generous hostess of their family mansion, now known as the historic William Barlow House. This family home remains on the original Barlow DLC site on Hwy 99E, looking south from this marker.
The dates engraved on the base of the Fountain indicate the year of death of Mary’s beloved parents: 1901-Martha Ann Barlow and 1904-William Barlow.
The fountain has 3 tiers of water; the lowest for dogs, the middle for horses and the highest was a drinking fountain for people. This fountain remains for us a significant reminder of Barlow’s historic past.
-Marker placed by City of Barlow – 2002

Glossary:

  • Attic base, a column base with two rings
  • Bas-relief, sculpted material that has been raised from the background to create a slight projection from the surface
  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Cavetto, a concave moulding with a curve of 90°
  • Cornice, a molding or ornamentation that projects from the top of a building
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Fluted, a long rounded groove
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests.
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Clock Tower Fountain

Location: Mitcham, Surrey, England

On 29 November 1899, a clock tower and cast iron drinking fountain was unveiled by James Salter White, chairman of the Croydon Rural District Council. The structure was funded by public subscription to commemorate Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee of 1897.

It was erected on the site of the old village pump in an area which was a rally point for Evangelists and politicians, fundraising, and events such as recruitment for the war and the inspection of Red Cross nurses by visiting Royalty.

The structure was controversial as many residents were unhappy that the old pump had been removed, and the clock became well known for its unreliability due to condensation affecting the clock’s mechanism. It was not uncommon for each of the four faces to show a different time.

The drinking fountain erected on London Road adjacent to the Buck’s Head pub and opposite the King’s Arms was relocated several times within Fair Green to allow for regeneration of the area. A controversial move in 1994, part of London Road was closed to traffic to create a pedestrian area and market place. It is within this pedestrian area that the structure is currently situated.

On 2 September 1988, it was listed as a Grade II historic building. In 2014 funding from the Heritage Lottery Fund enabled the town to undertake restoration of the historic structure; a water supply was connected to the drinking fountain, a new weather vane was installed, and the clock was refurbished by Surrey-based specialist clock makers Gillett & Johnston (the clock hands are not to the original design).

The newly restored structure was erected on 26th August 2015 with bespoke lanterns installed in 2016 to illuminate the clock face. (The original four gas lamps were replaced during the advent of electricity.)

The structure manufactured by McDowall Steven & Co. Ltd. is approximately 7m high and was seated on a two tiered octagonal plinth originally with two dog troughs at ground level. Two large demi-lune basins protrude from the pedestal beneath which the maker’s nameplate is visible, McDowall Steven & Co. / Limited / London & Glasgow.

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Four dolphins (dolphins are a symbolic protector of all things related to water) at each corner of the stanchion create sections decorated with a shell pattern, floral relief and a crest engraved V.R. 1897 which is a reference to the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. Two drinking cups were once suspended on chains.

The capital supports a fluted lamp column with attic base. The column is decorated with swags, a shield bearing a cross and stylized flowers flanked by leaves. Four consoles offered a gas light source from a glass paned lantern the top of which was decorated with palmette relief and a terminal resembling castle turrets.

Four beaded consoles divided by a flower sit just beneath the four clock faces. Each clock panel is bound by fan spandrels. A gable roof is adorned by a spike at each peak and bas-relief of a crown in the pediment.

A closed urn with four knob pendants supports a weather vane with directional compass points and a directional arrow with butterfly wings.

 

Glossary:

  • Attic base, a column base with two rings
  • Bas-relief, sculpted material that has been raised from the background to create a slight projection from the surface
  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Demi-lune, half moon or crescent shape
  • Fluted, a long rounded groove
  • Gable, triangular portion of a wall between edges of a dual pitched roof
  • Palmette, a decorative motif resembling the fan shaped leaves of a palm tree
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Pediment, an element in architecture consisting of a gable placed above a horizontal structure supported by columns
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests.
  • Spandrel, the triangular space between two arches
  • Stanchion, upright bar, post or frame providing support
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

Bracebridge W.C.T.U. Drinking Fountain

Location: Bracebridge, Ontario, Canada

The old drinking fountain currently located at the intersection of Manitoba Street, Entrance Drive and Ecclestone Drive originally stood near the post office at Manitoba Street and Taylor Road. It was donated to the town by the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union in 1914 and moved to its present location in 1988. The fountain was restored in 2010 due in great part to the efforts of Gary Denniss, a local Canadian historian and author.

The drinking fountain which hosts 3 large horse troughs is seated on a square base with acanthus frieze. A panel on each side is inset with stylized bas-relief. The capital supports a multi-tiered circular pillar with attic base and lion head mascarons on four sides which spouted water into the troughs. Drinking cups suspended on chains allowed humans to drink from the flowing water.

The manufacturer of the cast iron fountain is unknown.

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Glossary:

  • Acanthus, one of the most common plant forms (deeply cut leaves) to make foliage ornament and decoration. It is symbolic of a difficult
  • Attic base, a column base with two rings
  • Bas-relief, sculpted material that has been raised from the background to create a slight projection from the surface
  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Mascaron, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face or head of a human being or an animal

Brookline Village Fountains

Location: Brookline, Massachusetts, USA

New Englander Henry F. Jenks, a descendant of Rhode Island Governor Joseph Jenks, was an inventor who worked in numerous foundries, eventually opening his own manufacturing facility, the Jenks Iron Works Foundry where he started manufacturing fountains in 1871.

Two examples of the same pattern which furnished water for man and beast were installed in the village of Brookline.

The fountain was located outside Rhodes Bros. Co. store in the area known as Harvard Square at the junction of Washington and Harvard Streets.

A second example of this design was located at Harvard and Beacon Streets in a kerb cut-out opposite the street car shelter. It was still in situ in 1915.

Henry F. Jenks’ 24 feet high drinking fountain for man and beast was identified as #3 in his foundry catalog. The fountain manufactured in cast iron consisted of a solid base with an annular channel for use as a dog trough.

The 4ft high fluted pedestal with attic base hosted arched panels for dedication or bas-relief enrichment. A movable panel in one side offered access to plumbing.

A horse trough, 56 inches in diameter, in the form of a basin (at 4 feet 3 inches above ground level it was a comfortable height for horses to drink with ease) had the capacity to hold a barrel of water.

The centre of the basin contained a jamb from which dolphin mascarons spouted water and drinking cups were attached. Waste water was directed to the dog trough at street level. This design prevented contagious distemper.

The fountain was provided with self closing faucets and the pipes within were constructed to resist freezing in cold temperatures. Fountains were supplied both with and without an ice box attachment as desired. An ice box was placed near the sidewalk underground, which was provided with coils of tin lined pipe on which ice was placed to cool the water flowing through the coils to the outlet of the fountain.

The highly decorated finial with floral relief and a studded band terminated in an orb. The structure was also offered with a gas lantern extension.

A patent was applied for this design in 1880 by H. F. Jenks with the following description;

The design contemplates supplying water for man and beast; and to this end, as a feature of utility, I provide a capacious basin for animals to drink from, and a trickling stream, from which, in a cup, a portion may be caught for human use. An annular channel in the base permits dogs and birds to drink from.

The characteristic feature in the appearance of this design is a cylindrical pedestal mounted upon a suitable base, and supporting a circular bowl, nearly hemispherical in configuration, from the center of which springs a vertical tapering stem, bearing near its base two or more dolphins or mythical aquatic creatures, represented with streams of water issuing from their mouths and falling into the bowl. This bowl is so formed and located upon the pedestal that when approached by a team the pole will pass beneath the bottom of the said bowl, so as to allow the horses on both sides of the pole to drink at the same time without any loss of time or necessity for unhitching or driving up one side at a time, as usual, to water.

The stem may be continued upwardly, ornamented, as shown, with leaves, flutes, etc., and may support a lamp or lantern, if desired, in any suitable form, or basket for plants.

In the base and surrounding the pedestal is an upturned flange, enclosing a depressed annular for water; but this feature, though ornamental and useful, is not essential to my design.

The stem and pedestal may be plain or ornamented with vines and panels, without materially affecting the general aspect of the design.

Having thus described my drinking-fountain, I claim the design for a drinking-fountain herein described and shown, consisting of the cylindrical pedestal a bowl, tapering stem and aquatic figures formed thereon, all having the form of a configuration substantially as herein set forth.

Glossary:

  • Annular; circular, ring shaped
  • Attic base, a column base with two rings
  • Bas-relief, sculpted material that has been raised from the background to create a slight projection from the surface
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Fluted Shaft, a long rounded groove decorating the shaft of a column
  • Jamb, a projecting vertical post containing sculpture
  • Mascaron, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face or head of a human being or an animal
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue

 


Hamilton’s Hebe Fountain

Location: Hamilton, Ohio, USA

Following the completion of a public water supply system by the City of Hamilton in 1884, First National Bank donated a drinking fountain to the city in 1890. It was located near the main entrance of the bank in the Shuler and Benninghofen block on High Street.

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Used with permission. Source: Lane Public Libraries’ Cummins Photo Collection

The two images shown below at the northeast corner of Third and High Streets show the Shuler and Benninghofen block decorated for the 1891 centennial. Note that there are only forty-four stars in the hanging flag. Click to see larger image.

The Great Flood of 1913 covering more than four-fifths of Hamilton was Ohio’s largest weather disaster, and was the most wide-spread disaster in the history of the United States. Within the city the storm dropped between 4-8 inches of rain in 4 days. The fountain which is approximately 11’ 8” high is barely visible at the right edge of the image below.

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Used with permission. Lane Public Libraries’ Cummins Photo Collection

In 1929 the drinking fountain was removed to enable construction of the new First National Bank building, and for the next 47 years, it stood in the yard of a private residence on Haldimand Avenue on Hamilton’s West Side.

First National Bank re-acquired the fountain in 1975 and discussions between the bank and the Butler County Historical Society generated a plan to restore the fountain. Hamilton Foundry recast broken and missing pieces, and a Cincinnati sculptor was retained to clean, refinish and reassemble the fountain. It was reinstalled at its original location in front of the bank at Third and High Streets in 1976 as part of the United States Bicentennial observance.

In 2012, the bank now renamed First Financial Bank entered into an agreement with the city to demolish an older building at the intersection of Martin Luther King Boulevard and High Street to create a small park and relocate the fountain there in exchange for a city-owned parking area off Market Street.

When the structure was moved the maker’s plate, J.L. Mott N.Y., originally located at the front face of the capital beneath the statue, was attached to the rear of the structure where an additional plaque reads, Restored 1975 by Hamilton Foundry and First National Bank.

The fountain was manufactured by J. L. Mott Iron Works of New York. The structure is seated on an octagonal stone plinth. It consists of a single pedestal with attic base and canted corners surmounted by a 5’ bronze statue. An inscription on the base of the statue states: Manufactured by J.L. Mott Iron Works/ Cor. Beekman & Cliff St, New York.

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Used with permission, Jacob Stone

Eight arched cornices contain dolphin masks which were symbolic of guardians of water. The fountain supplied refreshment to humans via a dolphin mascaron which spouted water into a demi-lune fluted basin facing the sidewalk. A drinking cup was suspended on a chain.

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Horses drank from a large circular fluted trough facing the street from which overflow water fed two smaller basins for the refreshment of smaller animals. A plaque located above the horse trough is inscribed; First National Bank.

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Used with permission, Jacob Stone

An attic base supports a short column containing 4 inset panels bound by pilasters. The panels offered bas-relief with the option of a dedication plaque.

The capital supports a statue of Hebe, a Greek goddess, based on the 1806 sculpture by Berthel Thorvaldsen. The daughter of Zeus and Hera, Hebe is the Greek goddess of Youth and Spring, and proffers the cup of immortality at the table of the gods. The statue is classically dressed in flowing robes gathered at the waist. Her head is tilted down and to the left, and her hair is held by a headband or ribbon. Her left leg is bent and her weight is on her right leg. (This stance is called contrapposto, where one leg bears the weight and the other leg is relaxed.) She gazes at a raised cup in her left hand while holding a pitcher beside her right thigh.

In acknowledgment, I would like to thank Jacob Stone from City Hall who furnished me with several images from the Lane Public Libraries’ Cummins Photo Collection in addition to taking a current status photograph. His prompt, generous and willing assistance is to be commended. https://www.facebook.com/HamiltonOH/

The City of Hamilton is a sculptural hot-spot featuring in excess of fifty public sculptures around the downtown area with an equal number just a short distance away at Pyramid Hill Sculpture Park. Hamilton is located at the southern end of the Great Miami Riverway in southwest Ohio.

Glossary

  • Attic base, a column base with two rings
  • Bas-relief, sculpted material that has been raised from the background to create a slight projection from the surface
  • Canted corner, an angled surface which cuts of a corner
  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Contrapposto, stance where one leg bears the weight and the other leg is relaxed
  • Cornice, a molding or ornamentation that projects from the top of a building
  • Demi-lune, half moon or crescent shape
  • Fluted, a long rounded groove
  • Mascaron, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face or head of a human being or an animal
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Pilaster, a column form that is only ornamental and not supporting a structure
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests.

Burgie Memorial Drinking Fountain

Location: New Castle, Delaware, USA

In 1897 a cast iron drinking fountain/trough situated in front of the Court House was donated to the city by Annie Newlove Burgie as a memorial to her son, Henry N. Burgie, who died in Chicago on 17 January 1886 at the age of 19.

Burgie fountain PC - 1

Circa 1900. Image provided by Brian Cannon, New Castle Court House Museum

Although a committee was formed on 5 October 1897 to install the fountain, council minutes indicate that the water supply to the structure had not yet been connected in April 1898.

The fountain was mentioned in the New Castle Gazette on 24 May 1900; “The handsome fountain donated to the city by Mrs. Annie Burgie of Chicago, former resident of this city, situated on Delaware street near the post office is yet without water. Council men are urged to attend to the matter at once.”

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A bronze plaque is inscribed; Henry N. Burgie / Memorial Fountain / Erected 1900 / A Gift to the City By His Mother / Annie N. Burgie.

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Used with permission, Fred Lauzus

The year of installation inscribed on the plaque is refuted by an article published on October 21, 1897 in the Delaware Gazette and State Journal; “The drinking fountain recently donated by Miss Anna Burgie of Chicago, Ill., a former resident of this city, was placed in position yesterday and the finishing touches given to it, about 10 minutes before the arrival here of the donor. The work was under the supervision of Col. J. Harry Hogers.”

It is believed that installation of a dedication plaque discussed by council in 1909 never matured. The current plaque was installed on the fountain through the efforts of the grand nephews and grand niece of Annie Newlove Burgie on 29 March 1978.

The fountain was modernized in September 1940 when a bubbler was placed in the fountain; and in 1969, as reported by the New Castle Gazette, the fountain was painted by Edward Wise.

The drinking fountain is a pattern from J. W. Fiske Iron Works, and a maker’s plate is attached to the structure which consists of a two tiered octagonal base decorated with bands of foliate frieze and horizontal reeding also offers small troughs at ground level for dogs and smaller animals. The pedestal supports a large gadrooned trough for the use of horses. A spigot originally projected from a bas-relief rosette which supplied water to a smaller fluted basin for human consumption. A cornice of egg and dart moulding is located beneath the capital which supports a capped urn.

Many thanks to Fred Lauzus who furnished current photographs of the fountain and who assisted in the research of this structure. Your assistance is greatly appreciated.

Glossary

  • Bas-relief, sculpted material that has been raised from the background to create a slight projection from the surface
  • Bubbler, a fountain with a tap which ejects a stream of water
  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Cornice, a molding or ornamentation that projects from the top of a building
  • Egg and dart, a carving of alternating oval shapes and dart or arrow shapes
  • Fluted, a long rounded groove

Roger Williams Park Fountain

Location: Providence, Rhode Island, USA

In 1871 Betsey Williams, the great-great-great-granddaughter of Roger Williams, founder of the city of Providence, bequeathed the family farm to the city. Betsey stipulated in her will that the 100 acres of land was to be used for public good and bear the name of Roger Williams. The Roger Williams Park in Providence, Rhode Island was completed in the 1880s and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The drinking fountain which was manufactured by J. L. Mott Iron Works of New York was seated on a square base containing a panel on each of four sides decorated with an orb surrounded by flourish. Each corner was bound with a highly decorated pilaster. The base supported a single pedestal with four sides each of which offered a demi-lune basin into which water poured from a lion mascaron. A tin cup was suspended on a chain to allow humans the opportunity to drink.

A frieze of flora decorated the capital which supported an elaborately decorated urn capped with a pineapple finial (symbolic of friendship and hospitality). The urn was flanked by two elaborate consoles supporting glass lanterns with open-winged bird finials.

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Glossary:

  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Demi-lune, half moon or crescent shape
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Frieze, the horizontal part of a classical moulding just below the cornice, often decorated with carvings
  • Mascaron, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face or head of a human being or an animal
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Pilaster, a column form that is only ornamental and not supporting a structure