Category Archives: BrItish Listed Building

Faversham Town Pump

Location: Faversham, Kent, England

Before the arrival of a piped water supply in 1864, local households were dependent for their supply of water on pumps and wells. The first pump on the site of the Market Place next to Guildhall, provided by a local benefactor in 1635, was replaced by the present elaborate cow tailed pump in 1855.

FAVERSHAM_1900_books google

Circa 1900

Although this pump design is illustrated as #8 in the catalogue of George Smith & Co., the company did not exist until 1858, and it is therefore likely that the pattern was purchased from an existing iron foundry (possibly Dartford Iron Works; as the owner, John Hall, also owned a paper mill and a gunpowder factory in Faversham.)

Design #8 from the catalogue of George Smith & Co. was described as a drinking fountain and lamp combined. This octagonal shaped drinking fountain (cow tailed pump) is a single pedestal with attic base and inset arched panels which offered space for dedications. Entablature with bolt consoles sit beneath an ogee cupola with panels of fleur de lys motif. Yoke maintenance arms that originally supported the lamp-lighter are still in evidence. The original finial was a six sided glass pane lantern which no longer exists. The floral relief decorated column is capped with a ball finial. A small trough set into the base of the structure was for the use of dogs.

The structure was recorded as a Grade II historic building on 3 August 1972.

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Glossary

  • Attic base, a column base with two rings
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Cupola, a small, domed structure on top of a roof.
  • Entablature, moldings and bands which lie horizontally above columns
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Ogee, curve with a concave
  • Yoke maintenance arms, the bars near the top of a street light which supported the lamplighter’s ladder

Toll Green Pump

Location: Elie, Fife, Scotland

The cast iron structure at Toll Green in Elie often referred to as a drinking fountain was actually a cow tailed pump. It was erected in 1869 as engraved on the base; George Smith & Co Sun Foundry Glasgow 1869.

ELIE_1900s_flickr dodfather

Circa 1900. Used with permission. Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/dodfather/6583802409/

 

This octagonal shaped pump is design #8 from the catalogue of George Smith & Co. The single pillar with attic base hosted 8 inset arched panels of which six were for dedication. Two panels were used for the water spout and the cow tailed lever. When the pump was no longer used to supply water, these were removed and replaced with blank panels. Entablature with bolt consoles sits beneath an ogee cupola with alternate panels of fleur de lys motif.

A single column supported a six sided glass pane lantern which was capped with a ball and spike finial. The lamp has been replaced with an open sphere and spike finial atop a column with floral relief. Yoke maintenance arms that originally supported the lamp-lighter’s ladder are still in evidence. A small trough set into the base of the structure was for the use of dogs.

In 2001 Elie and Earlsferry Community Council raised funds to refurbish the pump as a millennium project. Acknowledged as the only remaining example of this design in Scotland, it was recorded as a Category C historic building on 9 August 2012.

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Glossary

  • Attic base, a column base with two rings
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Cupola, a small, domed structure on top of a roof.
  • Entablature, moldings and bands which lie horizontally above columns
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Ogee, curve with a concave
  • Yoke maintenance arms, the bars near the top of a street light which supported the lamplighter’s ladder

Shildon Drinking Fountain

Location: Shildon, Durham, England

The 19th century drinking fountain located in Timothy Hackworth Park was donated by the Committee of the Old Shildon Workingmen’s Club for the enjoyment of the people of Shildon.

Erected in 1914, the canopied drinking fountain is design number 21 (18 feet by 4 feet) from Walter Macfarlane &Co.’s catalog manufactured by the Saracen Foundry in Glasgow, Scotland. Seated on a two tiered octagonal plinth, the canopy is supported by eight columns with griffin terminals which are positioned over capitals with foliage frieze above square bases.

1965

The structure was listed as a Grade II historic building on 24 February 1986. The structure deteriorated over time and the griffins were stolen.

2001

Photograph taken 13 March 2001 © Mr Alan Bradley LRPS

During refurbishment of the park in 2003, the drinking fountain was also restored. The highly decorated cusped arches are trimmed with rope mouldings which display lunettes with alternate images of cranes and optional memorial shields. The shields in this instance display the Royal George Engine, the first steam engine cheaper than horse power, which was designed by Timothy Hackworth, a pioneering railway engineer. A second shield is inscribed Presented / To The / Inhabitants Of Shildon / By The / Members Of The Old Shildon / Workmen’s Club / November / 1914. There is also a shield commemorating the mining profession which was predominant in the area.

On each side arch faceplates provided a flat surface for inscription using raised metal letters; often the useful monition, Keep The Pavement Dry. Civic virtues such as temperance were often extolled in inscriptions on drinking fountains. Doves and flowers offer decorative relief on the circular, open filigree, ribbed dome which is surmounted with a vase and spiked obelisk finial.

Under the canopy stands font, casting number 7. The 5 ft 8ins high font is a single decorative pedestal with four pilasters and descending salamander relief supporting a basin 2 ft 6 ins in diameter. The interior surface of the scalloped edge basin is engraved with decorative relief, and a sculptured vase is terminated by the figure of a crane. Four elaborate consoles originally supported drinking cups on chains. Water flowed from a spout into the drinking cup by pressing its edge against a projecting stud below the spout. The self-closing valve allowed for operation with only one hand. The cups were removed due to recurring epidemics of Scarlet Fever which spread quickly and was often fatal.

Symbolism was popular in Victorian times. Griffins are symbolic of guardians of priceless possessions; lions are symbolic of guardianship; and doves are synonymous with peace. Cranes are recognized as a symbol of vigilance and are often depicted standing on one leg while holding a stone in the claws of the other foot. Legend states that if the watchful crane fell asleep the stone would fall and waken the bird.

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Glossary

  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Cartouche, a structure or figure, often in the shape of an oval shield or oblong scroll, used as an architectural or graphic ornament or to bear a design or inscription.
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Cusped Arch, the point of intersection of lobed or scalloped forms
  • Filigree, fine ornamental work
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Fret, running or repeated ornament
  • Frieze, the horizontal part of a classical moulding just below the cornice, often decorated with carvings
  • Griffin, winged lion denotes vigilance and strength, guards treasure and priceless possessions
  • Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
  • Obelisk, a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape at the top
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Pilaster, a column form that is only ornamental and not supporting a structure
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

 


Cleethorpes Drinking Fountain

Location: Cleethorpes, Lincolnshire, England

When the bucket fountain was removed from St. James Square in the 1970s, a canopied drinking fountain was installed in its place (unfortunately, I cannot find any information on the original location of this drinking fountain which was officially unveiled in 1869 by Mayor Edward John Bannister.) It was restored in 1977 and recorded as a Grade II historic building on 30 June 1999, and then delisted in November of the same year. It was removed and put into storage by North East Lincolnshire Council.

Drinking fountain number 8 from Walter Macfarlane & Co.’s catalogue was manufactured at the Saracen Foundry at Possilpark in Glasgow. The structure was 9 feet 6 inches high and consisted of four columns. Griffin terminals spouting water united with arches formed of decorated mouldings.

Four rope moulded cartouches hosted the Great Grimsby Coat of Arms comprised of a chevron between three boars’ heads, and two inscriptions Presented By The Mayor 1869, and Restored Jubilee Year 1977. The arches above two lunettes were inscribed with the useful monition, Keep The Pavement Dry. Civic virtues such as temperance were often extolled in inscriptions on drinking fountains. The structure was surmounted by an open filigree dome, the finial being a crown with a pattée cross.

Under the canopy this design usually contained a font with a crane terminal. However, the crane is not present in photographic evidence which probably means that it was either stolen or removed. The basin (2 feet 6 inches in diameter) which had a scalloped edge and decorative relief was supported by a single decorative pedestal with four pilasters and four descending salamanders, a symbol of courage and bravery. A central urn with four consoles offered drinking cups suspended by chains. The fountain was operated by pressing a button. Water also spouted from the mouths of the griffin capitals.

Symbolism was popular in Victorian times. Griffins are symbolic of guardians of priceless possessions, salamanders display bravery and courage that cannot be extinguished by fire, and cranes are recognized as a symbol of vigilance.

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Glossary

  • Capital: The top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Cartouche, a structure or figure, often in the shape of an oval shield or oblong scroll, used as an architectural or graphic ornament or to bear a design or inscription
  • Console: a decorative bracket support element
  • Filigree, fine ornamental work
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Griffin, winged lion denotes vigilance and strength, guards treasure and priceless possessions
  • Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
  • Pattée cross, a cross with arms that narrow at the centre and flare out at the perimeter
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Pilaster, a column form that is only ornamental and not supporting a structure
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

Southern Water Fountain

Location: Allanton, Scottish Borders, Scotland

The village of Allanton is a single street standing high above the confluence of the Whiteadder and Blackadder Waters, the site of two bridges. Allanton was part of the estate of Blackadder House.

There is little information available regarding the fountain located close to ground level and set into a wall of sandstone. It bears some resemblance to designs by the Coalbrookdale Company of Shropshire, England but the manufacturer cannot be confirmed.

capture

The recessed arch containing the drinking well is flanked by foliate enrichment, two putti playing musical instruments and a central mascaron of Poseidon surrounded by reeds. Within the arch is the date 1815 and the letter B which may refer to the Blackadder Family/House/Estate; however, this is speculation. A metal key which hangs within the niche was likely inserted into a rod in the ground which turned on the water flow.

jpb_allanton-2006-06-2

Status 2006. Used with permission, John, P. Bolton, Scottish Ironwork Foundation

The fountain was listed a category B historic building on 26 March 1997. The basin visible in photographs in 2006 is missing in images from March 2009. The remaining ironwork at the base of the structure is brittle and corroded.

sco_allenton-duns

jpb_allanton-2006-06-1

Status 2006. Used with permission, John, P. Bolton, Scottish Ironwork Foundation

2009-1

2011-1

Status 2011

 

Glossary

  • Foliate, decorated with leaves or leaf like motif
  • Mascaron, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face or head of a human being or an animal
  • Putto (plural is Putti), a figure in a work of art depicted as a chubby male child, usually nude

 


Tipton Fountain

Location: Sandwell, Staffordshire, England

The canopy is all that remains of a drinking fountain located in Victoria Park, Tipton. It was commissioned by Mr. George Monnington Waring and his wife Elizabeth to celebrate their golden wedding anniversary. It was unveiled on June 29, 1901 and was listed as a Grade II historic building on 29th September 1987.

The structure was restored in 2014 by Dorothea Restorations. Repairs were made and missing items recast before being gilded and painted.

The canopied drinking fountain was design number 21 (18 feet by 4 feet) from Walter Macfarlane & Co.’s catalog manufactured by the Saracen Foundry in Glasgow, Scotland. Seated on a two tiered octagonal plinth, the canopy is supported by eight columns with griffin terminals which are positioned over capitals with foliage frieze above square bases.

The highly decorated cusped arches are trimmed with rope mouldings which display lunettes with an image of a cranes and two memorial shields: Presented To The Inhabitants Of Tipton By Mr & Mrs G M Waring In Commemoration Of Their Golden Wedding And Residence In The Parish For Upwards Of 50 Years, April 1901.

On each side arch faceplates provide a flat surface for inscription using raised metal letters; often the useful monition, Keep The Pavement Dry. Civic virtues such as temperance were often extolled in inscriptions on drinking fountains.

Doves and flowers offer decorative relief on the circular, open filigree, ribbed dome. The internal capitals are floral ornament, and statues of owls on enlarged column heads. The openwork iron canopy is surmounted with a vase and spiked obelisk finial.

Under the canopy the standard design was font casting number 7. The 5 ft 8ins high font was a single decorative pedestal with four pilasters and descending salamander relief supporting a basin 2 ft 6 ins in diameter. The interior surface of the scalloped edge basin was engraved with decorative relief, and a sculptured vase was terminated by the figure of a crane. Four elaborate consoles supported drinking cups on chains. Water flowed from a spout into the drinking cup by pressing its edge against a projecting stud below the spout. The self-closing valve thus allowing for operation with only one hand.

Symbolism was popular in Victorian times. Griffins are symbolic of guardians of priceless possessions; lions are symbolic of guardianship; doves are synonymous with peace, and owls are symbolic of guardians of the afterlife. Cranes are recognized as a symbol of vigilance and are often depicted standing on one leg while holding a stone in the claws of the other foot. Legend states that if the watchful crane fell asleep the stone would fall and waken the bird.

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Glossary

  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Cartouche, a structure or figure, often in the shape of an oval shield or oblong scroll, used as an architectural or graphic ornament or to bear a design or inscription.
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Cusped Arch, the point of intersection of lobed or scalloped forms
  • Filigree, fine ornamental work
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Fret, running or repeated ornament
  • Frieze, the horizontal part of a classical moulding just below the cornice, often decorated with carvings
  • Griffin, winged lion denotes vigilance and strength, guards treasure and priceless possessions
  • Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
  • Obelisk, a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape at the top
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Pilaster, a column form that is only ornamental and not supporting a structure
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

Sidney Column

Location: Southampton, Hampshire, England

A cast-iron drinking fountain with gas lamp erected at the junction of Six Dials in St Mary’s district was presented in 1882 by Councillor  Jonas Nichols to the Borough of Southampton. Nichols, a builder and railway contractor, commissioned the fountain to commemorate his son, Sidney, attaining the age of majority which at that time was 21 years. Nichols drank the first cup of water after it was unveiled.

It was relocated opposite the Kingsland Market in 1904 and remained at this location until 1954 when it was returned to Bevois Street sporting an electric lamp. Recorded as a Grade II listed building in 1981, it currently resides at the west end of Bevois Street in Jonas Nichol’s Square off St Mary’s Street.

In 2012 the City of Southampton Society donated approximately £5000 towards the refurbishment of the fountain as the structure had badly deteriorated.

The design was manufactured by Messrs. Steven Bros. & Co. of the Milton Ironworks, Glasgow and London (later to be known as McDowall, Steven & Co.’s Milton Works). The structure was originally seated on an ornamental plinth approximately 3 feet square standing upon a Portland stone base surrounded with granite stone kerbing. Between the kerbing and the base, bricks formed a radiating pattern 12 feet in diameter.

The drinking fountain supplied fresh water to animals and humans. Lion mascarons, a symbol of guardianship, spouted water that humans drank using metal cups suspended on consoles. On four sides a large quatrefoil basin for horses was fed with overflow water. A square base housed small demi-lune basins at ground level for dogs.

The highly decorated stanchion and central column were decorated with scrollwork, octupuses, starfish, and poppies. A dolphin, symbolizing guardians of water, flanked each side of the stanchion. The capital was inscribed with the legend, Presented To The Town / Of Southampton By / J. Nichols, Esq. / In Commemoration / Of His Son Attaining / His Majority / 28th June 1882.

The bulbous base of the 22 feet high lamp column contained four mascarons alternated with acanthus rising to a fluted Corinthian column enriched with leaves and fruit. The terminal was a gas lamp with Sugg’s patent three flame burners.

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Glossary:

  • Acanthus, one of the most common plant forms (deeply cut leaves) to make foliage ornament and decoration
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Column Corinthian, a fluted shaft with flowers and leaves at the capital.
  • Demi-lune, half moon or crescent shape
  • Mascaron, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face or head of a human being or an animal
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests.
  • Quatrefoil, a type of decorative framework consisting of a symmetrical shape which forms the overall outline of four partially-overlapping circles of the same diameter
  • Stanchion, upright bar or post providing support
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal