Tag Archives: Edinburgh

Witches’ Well

Location: Edinburgh, Scotland.

Situated on the eastern corner of Edinburgh Castle Esplanade where it meets the Royal Mile, an inconspicuous drinking fountain is mounted on the wall. The location was once the reservoir that held the old town’s water supply. This fountain is known as the Witches’ Well.

In 1894, Sir Patrick Geddes, a philanthropist known for his innovative thinking in urban planning and sociology, commissioned his friend, John Duncan, to design a drinking fountain to be located on the west side of Castlehill Reservoir next to Ramsay Garden. Duncan was a famed artist who was influenced by Celtic myth and legend which is evident in the sculpture.

Mounted on a wall it consists of a rectangular protruding trough with a square back-plate. The relief contains the image of a Foxglove plant from the centre of which is a coiled snake intertwined around the head of Aesculapius, The God of Medicine, and his daughter Hygeia, the Goddess of Health.

The rod of Asclepius, a snake-entwined staff, remains a symbol of medicine today. Hygeia as the personification of health, cleanliness, and sanitation represents hygiene. The Foxglove plant used medicinally can also be poisonous depending on dosage; and the image of the serpent imbued with wisdom is also acknowledged as evil. The symbolism of all represents good and evil.

There is some dispute as to whether the well is cast iron or bronze. A hole beneath the snake’s head spouted water. The upper left corner contains Roman Numerals equivalent to 1479, and 1722 is depicted in the bottom right (the period of the most prevalent persecution of witches in Scotland.) The bottom left displays the year of the sculpture and the sculptor’s initials: 18 (JD) 94. Two bolts on the upper corners differ in design and are Wiccan symbols of air and water.

The trough is sculpted on three sides. The font displays flora with roots beneath the earth and branches above. The left panel depicts the evil eye with frowning eyes and nose; the words ‘the evil eye’ are written below. The right side depicts a pair of hands holding a bowl with the words ‘hands of’ written above the bowl and ‘healing’ written below.

The plaque above the well was erected in 1912 and contains the inscription: This Fountain Designed By John Duncan RSA / Is Near The Site On Which Many Witches Were / Burned At The Stake. The Wicked Head And Serene / Head Signify That Some Used Their Exceptional / Knowledge For Evil Purposes While Others Were / Misunderstood And Wished Their Kind Nothing / But Good. The Serpent Has The Dual Significance / Of Evil And Of Wisdom. The Foxglove Spray Further / Emphasises The Dual Purpose Of Many Common Objects.

A local woman has undertaken the task of caring for the well and places flowers on a regular basis. A card can be seen in one of the photos which is a message recently written to those who died.

Persecution of Witches

Scotland’s King James VI believed that witchcraft was a form of Satanism and that anyone who possessed those abilities was tainted by the devil. As a result, in the 17th and 18th centuries, over 4000 alleged witches (mostly female) were put to death.

Witch trials were nothing more than a ritual with little evidence other than having a mole on the body, having red hair, or a malevolent neighbour who made the accusation of witchcraft. A hearing took place at the local church to gather evidence which was then forwarded to the High Court.

Torture, used to extract the truth and a confession, varied from sleep deprivation to hacking off breasts. If a witch refused to confess, it was seen as evidence that the Devil had her under his control. To garner absolute proof the accused was thrown into the Nor Loch (now Princes Street Gardens) with her left hand or thumb tied to her right foot, and her right hand or thumb tied to the left foot, leaving little hope of floating or treading water. If the accused sank (proof of innocence) a rope tied around her middle prevented drowning.

If the accused floated, she was classed as a witch, strangled and hung at the stake (the common belief that witches were burned alive is generally a myth.) The witch was then burned at a public spectacle at Castlehill, just below the castle.

On 25 June 1591, one of the most severe punishments was directed on Dame Euphane MacCalzean, who was accused of using a spell to destroy the ship of King James VI as it entered North Berwick. She was condemned to be ‘bound to a stake and burned in ashes, quick to the death.’

Scotland was Europe’s biggest persecutor of witches. By the end of the 17th century, witches were routinely hanged instead of being burned. The last hanging took place in 1728.


Fountain in National Museum, Scotland

Location: Edinburgh, Scotland

The cast iron drinking fountain on display in the Grand Hall of the museum has been extensively restored and is intended to replicate pattern number 21 from the Walter Macfarlane & Co.’s. catalogue. However, this restored version has applied elements from a different design.

The finial on top of the canopy is a finial associated with Drinking Fountain number 8 (a 4 column canopy version.) The griffins with outstretched wings lay on the arches of pattern number 8. The correct version for pattern 21 has griffins with wings tucked into the side.

Design number 21 was manufactured in the 1880’s at the Saracen Foundry at Possilpark in Glasgow, considered the most prolific architectural iron founder in the world. The description in the catalogue reads: The structure consists of four columns, from the capitals of which consoles with griffin terminals unite with arches formed of decorative mouldings, encircling ornamental shields. On two of the sides provision is made for receiving an inscription; whilst on the other two sides is the useful monition, “Keep the Pavement Dry.” Surmounting this is an open and highly enriched dome, the apex being occupied by a crown. Under the canopy stands the font, with basin 2 feet 6 inches in diameter. Price, ready for fitting up, with four water supply taps, and four drinking cups, delivered in Glasgow:- £27.10.0

The canopied drinking fountain is seated on an octagonal plinth. The canopy is supported by eight columns with griffin terminals which are positioned over capitals with foliage frieze above square bases.

The highly decorated cusped arches are trimmed with rope mouldings which display an image of a crane in each lunette. On each side arch faceplates provide a flat surface for inscription using raised metal letters; often the useful monition, Keep the pavement dry. Civic virtues such as temperance were often extolled in inscriptions on drinking fountains.

Doves and flowers offer decorative relief on the circular, open filigree, ribbed dome which is surmounted with a crown and with a pattée cross. The internal capitals contain flowers.

Under the canopy is the font (casting number 7, 5 ft 8ins high). The single pedestal with four decorative pilasters and descending salamander relief supports a basin 2 ft 6 ins in diameter. The basin has a scalloped edge and is engraved with decorative relief. The original design contained a central vase with four consoles which offered drinking cups suspended by chains. The terminal is a crane. As in almost every example of cast iron drinking fountains, the drinking cups have been lost and/or deteriorated. Sadly, a facsimile of the original drinking cups has not been replicated.

Symbolism was popular in Victorian times. Griffins are symbolic of guardians of priceless possessions, cranes are recognized as a symbol of vigilance, and salamanders as a symbol of courage and bravery.

Glossary

  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Cusped Arch, the point of intersection of lobed or scalloped forms
  • Filigree, fine ornamental work
  • Frieze, the horizontal part of a classical moulding just below the cornice, often decorated with carvings
  • Griffin, winged lion denotes vigilance and strength, guards treasure and priceless possessions
  • Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
  • Pattée cross, a cross with arms that narrow at the centre and flare out at the perimeter
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Pilaster, a column form that is only ornamental and not supporting a structure
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal