Tag Archives: Glasgow

Maxwell Square Fountain

Location: Pollokshields, Glasgow, Scotland

In the late 19th century during demolition of the tenements in East Pollokshields, Sir John Stirling Maxwell donated land to create a playground for local children. Named Maxwell Square (not to be confused with Maxwell Park) it was opened in 1889 and featured a cast-iron drinking fountain on the Kenmure Street side of the Park. It was demolished in 1950.

Drinking fountain number 8 from Walter Macfarlane & Co.’s catalogue was manufactured at the Saracen Foundry at Possilpark in Glasgow. The structure was 9 feet 6 inches high and consisted of four columns, from the capitals of which consoles with griffin terminals united with arches formed of decorated mouldings.

Rope moulded cartouches within each lunette hosted the image of a crane, and an open bible displaying a verse from St. John’s Gospel chapter 4 verse 14, ‘Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again but whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst,’ or optional memorial shields. On two of the sides provision was made for receiving an inscription using raised metal letters; whilst on the other two sides was the useful monition, Keep The Pavement Dry. Civic virtues such as temperance were often extolled in inscriptions on drinking fountains. The structure was surmounted by an open filigree dome, the finial being a crown with a pattée cross.

Under the canopy stood the font (design number 7) 5 foot 8 inches high. The terminal was a crane. The basin (2 feet 6 inches in diameter) which had a scalloped edge and decorative relief was supported by a single decorative pedestal with four pilasters and four descending salamanders, a symbol of courage and bravery. A central urn with four consoles offered drinking cups suspended by chains. The fountain was operated by pressing a button.

Symbolism was popular in Victorian times. Griffins are symbolic of guardians of priceless possessions, salamanders display bravery and courage that cannot be extinguished by fire, and cranes are recognized as a symbol of vigilance.

ebay

1905 pollokshields

Circa 1905

Glossary

  • Capital: The top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Cartouche, a structure or figure, often in the shape of an oval shield or oblong scroll, used as an architectural or graphic ornament or to bear a design or inscription
  • Console: a decorative bracket support element
  • Filigree, fine ornamental work
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Fret, running or repeated ornament
  • Griffin, winged lion denotes vigilance and strength, guards treasure and priceless possessions
  • Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
  • Pattée cross, a cross with arms that narrow at the centre and flare out at the perimeter
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Pilaster, a column form that is only ornamental and not supporting a structure
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

Phoenix Park Fountains

Location: Cowcaddens, Glasgow, Scotland

In the late 19th century and early 20th century there were two fountains in Phoenix Park on Garscube Road. The large ornamental spray fountain was commissioned and donated by a local confectioner and owner of John Buchanan & Bros. Ltd. known as John ‘Sweetie’ Buchanan. It was manufactured by Edington Foundry also known as the Phoenix Foundry (the park was established on the site previously occupied by the foundry.) The park was restored in 1959 and the derelict (due to neglect) spray fountain was demolished.

The smaller drinking fountain, known as the well was also located within the park not far from the spray fountain. Design #25 was manufactured by James Allan Senr & Son, Elmbank Foundry, Glasgow.

The 7ft. 2ins. high structure had a single fluted pedestal with a band of acanthus relief was seated on a two tiered circular stone plinth. A large basin sculptured with egg and dart relief supported 4 dwarf Corinthian columns with attic base. The capitals supported 4 arches decorated with a bas-relief of laurel leaves and a solid dome ornamented with fish scale design. The terminal was an urn with orb finial. A constant stream of water operated via a self-closing tap was delivered through a single jet centrally placed within the canopy. Two drinking cups were suspended from chains.

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1955-hiddenglasgow

Circa 1955

The area surrounding and including the park was cleared during the building of the M8 in the 1970’s.

Glossary

  • Attic base, a column base with two rings
  • Bas-relief, sculpted material that has been raised from the background to create a slight projection from the surface
  • Canopy, an ornamental roof-like projection
  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Column Corinthian, a fluted shaft with flowers and leaves at the capital.
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Fluted, a long rounded groove
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests.
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

 


Drinking Fountain and Clock Towers

Location: Glasgow in Scotland, and Leeds in England

Three identical fountains were erected in the late 19th century; Glasgow Gorbals in 1878, Woodhouse Moor, Leeds in 1879; and Hunslet Moor, Leeds in 1880. They were manufactured by George Smith’s Sun Foundry in Glasgow. Unfortunately these fountains no longer exist.

GLASGOW
Gorbals Cross was widened in the late 19th century to create a public space at the junction of Ballater and Gorbals streets. The stone structure with cast iron clock and drinking fountain containing shields bearing the Glasgow Coat of Arms was erected in 1878. It was demolished in 1932. Two faces of the clock were retained and mounted on a simple post which also no longer exists.

In 2015 a community group applied for a grant from Historic Scotland to recreate the drinking fountain by taking a 3D laser scan of the structure in Basseterre to recreate working blueprints.

 

HUNSLET MOOR
Hunslet Moor was a 68 acre open space which Leeds Corporation purchased in 1879 to create a public park. A combination clock tower and drinking fountain was erected in 1880, donated by William Emsley, a local solicitor who became Mayor in 1888. It was located at the beginning of the footpath into the park, on Moor Road facing the tramway and contained shields displaying Leeds’ coat of arms. The structure disappeared circa 1955 most likely to accommodate the creation of the M621 which would link major industrial cities.

Woodhouse Moor has already been posted, see: https://memorialdrinkingfountains.wordpress.com/2015/01/16/woodhouse-moor-fountain/

The only existing model of this pattern is in Bassettere in St Kitts, West Indies, which has been researched previously and can be found here: https://memorialdrinkingfountains.wordpress.com/?s=basseterre

Design number 1, drinking fountain with clock tower, was manufactured by George Smith & Co.’s Sun Foundry in Glasgow, and consisted of a modified octagonal base forming the shape of cross which contained a basin within each of the four recesses. A single rectangular pedestal was divided into five levels with the use of acroteria and cornices. The upper levels were supported by four columns with gas lamp terminals.

Arches offered space for memorial inscriptions and had lunettes with a barometer and thermometer. A demi-lune basin with tap provided drinking water. In the upper tiers shields were offered on each inset square panel, and provision was made for receiving an inscription using raised metal letters. A clock face pointed in each compass direction. The capital supported a weather vane surmounted on a four tiered acroteria.

Glossary

  • Acroteria, an ornament placed on a flat base and mounted at the apex of the pediment
  • Cornice, a molding or ornamentation that projects from the top of a building
  • Demi-lune, half moon or crescent shape
  • Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

Dalmuir Fountain

Location: Glasgow, Scotland

Dalmuir Park, at Clydebank & Erskine in Glasgow, was opened in 1906. The following year a canopied drinking fountain was donated by Provost Samuel Leckie. Renovation of the park in 2012 included restoration of the fountain by JPS Restoration & Property Services. Funding for the project was shared by the Heritage Lottery Fund and West Dunbartonshire Counci.

Design number 20, an elaborate 18 feet by 4 feet fountain, was purchased from Walter Macfarlane & Co, and manufactured at the Saracen Foundry, Possilpark, Glasgow, Scotland. Seated on a double octagonal plinth, the open filigree canopy is supported by eight columns with griffin terminals which are positioned over capitals with foliage frieze above square bases.

The highly decorated cusped arches were trimmed with rope mouldings. Cartouches contained within each lunette displayed alternate images of cranes and swans and offered shields for memorial. The Coat of Arms of the Burgh of Clydebank is displayed. On each side arch faceplates provided a flat surface for an inscription using raised metal letters; often the useful monition, Keep the pavement dry. Civic virtues such as temperance were often extolled in inscriptions on drinking fountains.

Doves and flowers offer decorative relief on the circular, ribbed dome. The internal capitals contain flowers, lion mascarons area placed on internal lunettes, and statues of owls sit on enlarged column heads. The structure is surmounted with an eagle finial.

Under the canopy stands the font (design number 18.) A circular shaft, ornamented with water lilies, rests on a wide base with canted corners. Four lion jambs support four highly decorated quatrefoil basins. Rising from the centre is a pyramid shaped stanchion decorated with swan and bird decoration. A kylix-shaped lamp terminal with four consoles offer drinking cups suspended by chains.

Symbolism was popular in Victorian times. Griffins are symbolic of guardians of priceless possessions; lions are symbolic of guardianship; owls are symbolic of guardians of the afterlife, and eagles represent immortality.

Glossary

  • Canted corner, an angled surface which cuts of a corner
  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Cartouche, a structure or figure, often in the shape of an oval shield or oblong scroll, used as an architectural or graphic ornament or to bear a design or inscription
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element Filigree, fine ornamental work
  • Cusped Arch, the point of intersection of lobed or scalloped forms
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Frieze, the horizontal part of a classical moulding just below the cornice, often decorated with carvings
  • Griffin, winged lion denotes vigilance and strength, guards treasure and priceless possessions
  • Jamb, a projecting vertical post containing sculpture
  • Kylix, a Grecian style drinking cup
  • Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests
  • Quatrefoil, a type of decorative framework consisting of a symmetrical shape which forms the overall outline of four partially-overlapping circles of the same diameter
  • Stanchion, upright bar or post providing support
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

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Bailie James Martin Memorial Drinking Fountain

Location: Glasgow, Scotland

Located in Glasgow Green this drinking fountain originally stood outside Langside Halls. It was erected in 1893 by public subscription after James Martin’s death. It was dedicated to him on 26 May 1894. James Martin was a senior councilor, the Town’s Master of Works, a member of the Clyde Navigation Trust, a Justice of the Peace and a highly respected Police Judge. He is well remembered for his opposition to an affluent building development when housing in the East End was deteriorating.

The canopied drinking fountain is design number 20, an elaborate 18 feet by 4 feet fountain, sold by Walter Macfarlane & Co, and manufactured at the Saracen Foundry, Possilpark, Glasgow, Scotland. Seated on a single plinth, the open filigree canopy is supported by eight columns with griffin terminals which are positioned over capitals with foliage frieze above square bases.

The highly decorated cusped arches were trimmed with rope mouldings. Cartouches contained within each lunette offer shields for memorial portraying the Glasgow Arms, a swan, a crane and the dedicatory inscription: In Memoriam/James Martin/Born 1815, Died 1892/Councillor and Magistrate of Glasgow for twenty years/ Erected by his fellow citizens/ 1893. On each side arch faceplates provided a flat surface for an inscription using raised metal letters; often the useful monition, Keep the pavement dry. Civic virtues such as temperance were often extolled in inscriptions on drinking fountains.

Doves and flowers offer decorative relief on the circular, ribbed dome. The internal capitals contain flowers. The structure is surmounted with an eagle finial.

Under the canopy stands the font (design number 18.) A circular shaft, ornamented with water lilies, rests on a wide base with canted corners. Four lion jambs support four highly decorated quatrefoil basins. Rising from the centre is a pyramid shaped stanchion decorated with swan and bird decoration. A kylix-shaped lamp terminal with four consoles offer drinking cups suspended by chains.

Symbolism was popular in Victorian times. Griffins are symbolic of guardians of priceless possessions; owls are symbolic of guardians of the afterlife, cranes are recognized as a symbol of vigilance, lions are symbolic of guardianship, and eagles represent immortality.

Glossary

  • Canted corner, an angled surface which cuts of a corner
  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Cartouche, a structure or figure, often in the shape of an oval shield or oblong scroll, used as an architectural or graphic ornament or to bear a design or inscription
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Cusped Arch, the point of intersection of lobed or scalloped forms
  • Filigree, fine ornamental work
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Frieze, the horizontal part of a classical moulding just below the cornice, often decorated with carvings
  • Griffin, winged lion denotes vigilance and strength, guards treasure and priceless possessions
  • Jamb, a projecting vertical post containing sculpture
  • Kylix, a Grecian style drinking cup
  • Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
  • Mascaron, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face or head of a human being or an animal
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests
  • Quatrefoil, a type of decorative framework consisting of a symmetrical shape which forms the overall outline of four partially-overlapping circles of the same diameter
  • Stanchion, upright bar or post providing support
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

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Alexandra Parade Fountain

The 40 foot cast iron fountain, built by Walter Macfarlane’s Saracen Foundry, located within Alexandra Park in the east end of Glasgow is not a drinking fountain and therefore will not be detailed here.

Instead we will focus on the cast iron drinking fountain at the entrance gates of Alexandra Park. It was erected circa 1880 and has been attributed to Cruickshank & Co., although it would appear to be an exact replica of the Sun Foundry’s drinking fountain number 3.

Four columns with obelisk finials rise from a double plinth to support a solid domed canopy. The interior column connectors to the dome are adorned with descending alligators and leafy decoration. They were considered a symbol of evil and were hung from the ceilings of cabinets as a reminder of the mortality of humanity.

The dome with a vase obelisk finial covers the fluted pedestal and wide basin containing a putto holding an oar, seated on an upturned urn.

Arch faceplates with drip fret detail offer a flat surface for inscriptions in raised metal letters; civic virtues such as temperance were extolled on many drinking fountains. Over each arch are commemorative panels for dedication or crests, one of these lunettes contains the Coat of Arms for the City of Glasgow.

The fountain was recorded as a category B historic listed building 17 June 1992.

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Glossary

  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Fluted, a long rounded groove
  • Fret, running or repeated ornament
  • Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
  • Obelisk, a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape at the top Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests.
  • Putto (plural is Putti), a figure in a work of art depicted as a chubby male child, usually nude

 


Aitken Memorial Fountain

Let’s start this blog off with a successful restoration story.

Dr. John Aitken was born and died in Govan, Glasgow, Scotland. He was dearly loved for his devotion to the poor, and much appreciated by his patients.

The fountain, while displaying many features of George Smith & Co.’s drinking fountains, is unique due to the six columns which support the canopy. It was manufactured by Cruickshanks & Co., otherwise known as the Denny Iron Works, the memorial was erected in 1884 at Water Row, Govan and dedicated to the good doctor. On 15 May 1987, the fountain was listed a Category B historic listed building.

During the 120 years since its erection, the fountain fell into disrepair. The Townscape Heritage Initiative undertook the task of restoring the monument in 2011, and restoration was undertaken by the Ballantine Boness Creative Ironworks.

The structure was originally seated on an octagonal plinth; following restoration the plinth is now a square. It has 6 columns with an arched (fish scale) dome topped with a corona and spike/orb finial. At the top of each arch is a commemorative panel representing the manufacturer, Cruickshanks & Co.; the Govan coat of arms; the Freemasons; the Manchester Unity of Oddfellows; the Ancient Order of Foresters; and a dedication which reads: Erected by the inhabitants of Govan in affectionate remembrance of John Aitken M.D. who died 11 March 1880, aged 41 years.

Connecting the interior columns to the fretwork detailed arch are alligators, one of many forms of Memento Mori. They were considered a symbol of evil and were hung from the ceilings of cabinets as a reminder of the mortality of humanity.

The drinking fountain consists of a wide mouthed basin, in the centre of which is a putto holding a paddle seated on an upturned urn. This ‘putto’ is the Sun Foundry’s pattern number 8. A receptacle for drinking was in the form of a small cup chained to the fountain.

Glossary

  • Corona, Open framework in shape of a crown
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Fret, running or repeated ornament
  • Memento Mori, an artistic or symbolic reminder of the inevitability of death Plinth
  • Putto (plural is Putti), a figure in a work of art depicted as a chubby male child, usually nude