Category Archives: Trough

Lakewood Township Drinking Fountain

Location: Lakewood, New Jersey, USA

The village of Lakewood became a Township on March 23, 1893. When several high profile families purchased real estate in the area, it became a vacation resort for the wealthy.

Although the installation of a drinking fountain was the idea of William J. Harrison, Druggist and State Senator in 1903, Captain Albert M. Bradshaw , a real estate agent who handled Rockefeller’s real estate transactions, was put in charge of the project raising $1,000 by subscription. The social hierarchy was evident when a small drinking trough at ground level for dogs was designated for ‘not strays, but the hounds of the Lakewood Hunt Club’.

The drinking fountain was located on Clifton Avenue from 1891 until 1938 when construction began on the post office. The structure was then moved to Main Street at North Lake Drive and Madison Avenue. The lamps were removed and the fountain no longer issued water.

In 1981 during redesign of the downtown area the fountain was moved to within 100 feet of its original location at the northeast corner of Clifton Avenue and Main Street near the Post Office.

The fountain was again relocated in 2016 to a circular driveway in front of Kuser Hall, the new home of the Sheldon Wolpin Lakewood Historical Museum. The museum can be found inside Pine Park, the home of Lakewood Country Club.

The cast iron structure manufactured by J. L. Mott Iron Works is seated on an octagonal base with chamfered corners. A small basin at ground level allowed dogs to drink, and two large fluted troughs serviced the thirst of horses and cattle. A bronze plaque is inscribed; Erected By / Subscription / 1891 / Made By / The J.L. Mott.Iron.Works / New York.

Eight panels, surmounted with scalloped arches, hosted dolphin masks from which water spouted into four demi-lune basins decorated with laurel leaves. Anchored adjacent to the basin were drinking cups suspended on chains. A square central column displayed cartouches containing an orb surrounded by flourish. Each corner was bound with a highly decorated pilaster.

The capital supported an urn flanked by two elaborate consoles supporting glass lanterns. The highly decorated urn was capped with an orb and pineapple finial (symbolic of friendship and hospitality).

Glossary

  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Cartouche, a structure or figure, often in the shape of an oval shield or oblong scroll, used as an architectural or graphic ornament or to bear a design or inscription.
  • Chamfered, a beveled edge connecting two surfaces
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Demi-lune, half moon or crescent shape
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Fluted, a long rounded groove
  • Mask/Mascaron, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face or head of a human being or an animal
  • Pilaster, a column form that is only ornamental and not supporting a structure
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Gayasuta Fountain

Location: Sharpsburg, PA, USA

H. J. Heinz, a member of the Temperance movement and extremely unforgiving of those who drank alcohol, donated a cast iron drinking fountain in 1896 surmounted by the statue of an Indian. It was installed at the intersection of Main and North Canal Street currently the heart of the Sharpsburg Central Business District.

The statue represents Guyasuta, a strong warrior and skilled hunter who was also a Seneca Indian chief that resided in the area in the 1700’s. He was chosen by George Washington to be a hunter guide with his party in 1753.

The fountain was struck by a vehicle in 1930 destroying the statue which required a copy to be cast using the original mold. In 1983 the fountain was once again struck by a truck causing damage to the statue. The Indian chief now in his third resurrection was cast by Eleftherios Karkadulias of Karkadoulias Bronze Art Company of Cincinnati.

The original fountain was manufactured by J. L. Mott Iron Works of New York. The structure was seated on an octagonal stone plinth. It consisted of a single pedestal with attic base and canted corners surmounted by a bronze statue of an Indian Chief.

3-JL Mott_Indian

 

The fountain supplied water to horses, humans and dogs via dolphin mascarons. Eight arched cornices contained dolphin masks which are symbolic of guardians of water. Two of the mascarons spouted water into demi-lune fluted basins for human consumption. Drinking cups were suspended by chains. Horses drank from two large demi-lune fluted troughs from which overflow water fed four smaller basins on each corner for the refreshment of smaller animals. A plaque between the dog troughs was inscribed with the maker’s name, The J.L. Mott/Iron Wks. N.Y.

An attic base supported a short column containing 4 inset panels bounded by pilasters. Four panels offered bas-relief with the option of a dedication plaque.

The capital supported the statue of an Indian which was modelled from an original wood carving created by Samuel Anderson Robb who was the leading cigar store Indian peddler. It was carved for William Demuth & Co. who cast it in zinc and advertised it in his catalog as “No. 53 Indian Chief.” In 1873, the J.L. Mott Iron Works purchased the design and listed it in their catalog of statuary. In his right hand the Indian Chief holds an arrow, and in his left hand he holds a bow attached to a base near his left foot, which rests on a rock. (This stance is called contrapposto, where one leg bears the weight and the other leg is relaxed.) A tree stump behind his right leg balances the sculpture. He is dressed in a headband containing three feathers, a bear claw necklace, a cloak, a breechcloth (fabric tucked into a belt that covered the front and back), fringed leggings and moccasins.

Glossary

  • Attic base, a column base with two rings
  • Bas-relief, sculpted material that has been raised from the background to create a slight projection from the surface
  • Canted corner, an angled surface which cuts of a corner
  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Cartouche, a structure or figure, often in the shape of an oval shield or oblong scroll, used as an architectural or graphic ornament or to bear a design or inscription.
  • Contrapposto, stance where one leg bears the weight and the other leg is relaxed
  • Cornice, a molding or ornamentation that projects from the top of a building
  • Demi-lune, half moon or crescent shape
  • Fluted, a long rounded groove
  • Mascaron, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face or head of a human being or an animal
  • Pilaster, a column form that is only ornamental and not supporting a structure
  • Plinth, Flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests.

 


The Fountain That Wasn’t A Fountain

Location: Schenectady, New York State, USA

In 1844 at the current intersection of Front, Ferry, and Green Streets, a circular plot of grass was planted with trees and surrounded by a wooden fence to mark the site of a Colonial fort built in 1704.

In 1887 the wooden fence was replaced with an equivalent forged in metal, and a cast iron pedestal was installed surmounted by the statue of an Indian.

The pedestal is essentially a drinking fountain manufactured by J. L. Mott Iron Works of New York. The structure is seated on an octagonal stone plinth. It consists of a single pedestal with attic base and canted corners surmounted by a bronze statue of an Indian Chief. Eight arched cornices contain dolphin mascarons, symbolic of guardians of water, designed to spout water into basins.

An attic base supports a short column containing four inset panels bounded by pilasters. Alternating panels display a dedication plaque: Queens New Fort / Built 1705 / Demolished During / The Revolutionary War / This / Memorial Statue / Erected / 12th September 1887.

Two large demi-lune fluted troughs for use by horses usually attached to opposite sides of the pedestal were placed outside the perimeter of the fence. The troughs became obsolete during the advent of the motor vehicle and were removed.

The bronzed statue of an Indian mounted on a cast iron pedestal was purchased as a garden ornament by John Henry Starin, an affluent U.S. congressman who had hundreds of statues on his expansive property in Fultonville. Nicknamed St. Nicholas because of his generosity and philanthropy, Starin donated the statue to the city.

The model of the Indian was originally a wood carving created by Samuel Anderson Robb who was the leading cigar store Indian peddler. It was carved for William Demuth & Co. who cast it in zinc and advertised it in his catalog as “No. 53 Indian Chief.” In 1873, J.L. Mott Iron Works purchased the design and listed it in their catalog of statuary with dimensions of 5ft. 9ins. to the top of the head and 6ft. 6ins. to the top of the feathers. In his right hand the Indian Chief holds an arrow, and in his left hand he holds a bow attached to a base near his left foot, which rests on a rock. (This stance is called contrapposto, where one leg bears the weight and the other leg is relaxed.) A tree stump behind his right leg balances the sculpture. He is dressed in a headband containing three feathers standing erect, a bear claw necklace, a cloak, a breechcloth (fabric tucked into a belt that covered the front and back), fringed leggings and moccasins.

In 1898 a plaque was added to the base of the pedestal by the Common Council on the centennial anniversary of the inauguration of the city.

hdmb

As part of Schenectady’s tri-centennial celebrations in 1962 the Indian statue was named Lawrence to commemorate a Christian Mohawk who assisted early settlers after the 1690 Massacre. A bronze plaque was attached to the base of the fountain following a parade.

In 1986, the fountain was refurbished, and the head dress and arrow on the statue were replaced. The feathers were incorrectly positioned to the left.

2008 wikimedia daniel case

Status 2009. Creative Commons License, Daniel Case. Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lawrence_the_Indian_statue,_Schenectady,_NY.jpg

Twenty six years later in 2012, a project to restore the structure was administered by the Stockade Association and refinished by Legere Restorations using a blasting method with baking soda. Note that the feathers have been re-aligned to the original position.

2012 lawrence24may2012

Status 2012.

Glossary

  • Attic base, a column base with two rings
  • Canted corner, an angled surface which cuts of a corner
  • Contrapposto, stance where one leg bears the weight and the other leg is relaxed
  • Cornice, a molding or ornamentation that projects from the top of a building
  • Demi-lune, half moon or crescent shape
  • Fluted, a long rounded groove
  • Mascaron, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face or head of a human being or an animal
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Pilaster, a column form that is only ornamental and not supporting a structure
  • Plinth, Flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests.

 


The Original Drinking Fountain at Saracen Cross

Location: Glasgow, Scotland

The cast iron canopy restored in 1999 at the intersection of Saracen Street and Bardowie Street known as Saracen Cross has been researched and can be viewed at this link.

An entirely different type of drinking fountain stood in the same location in 1878. This fountain was also a source of water for horses.

The 12ft 6ins. high drinking fountain was design #27 manufactured by Walter Macfarlane & Co. in the Saracen Foundry, Glasgow. The design was advertised as well suited for Street Crossings, Squares, Market Places, etc., as it afforded drinking accommodation for a large number of horses and drivers, and effectively lit a wide space, with the least possible obstruction to other traffic.

It provided a drinking trough for horses with small basins for dogs at ground level. The trough was a 6’6” diameter circular cast iron basin supported on legs in the form of horses’ hooves. The water was regulated by a small patent cistern, which was self-acting, and when the troughs were full the ball rose and shut the water off.

The central stanchion supported a central column with flared bases and pilasters. Four projecting consoles suspended cups on chains that allowed humans to drink from spouting water (the water flow was operated with two bib valves which released water when pressed). Horses drank from the large basin. A dedication shield located directly above the consoles was adhered to the fluted shaft. The decorative capital, enriched with acanthus and rosette with a dog tooth frieze, supported four lanterns. The terminal was a four sided clock.

SCO_Glasgow Saracen Cross_archivebebo_7SCO_Glasgow Saracen Cross_archivebebo_13

Glossary

  • Acanthus, one of the most common plant forms (deeply cut leaves) to make foliage ornament and decoration
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Dog tooth, pyramid shaped carving
  • Fluted Shaft, a long rounded groove decorating the shaft of a column
  • Frieze, the horizontal part of a classical moulding just below the cornice, often decorated with carvings
  • Pilaster, a column form that is only ornamental and not supporting a structure
  • Plinth, Flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests.
  • Rosette, a round stylized flower design
  • Stanchion, an upright bar or post providing support
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

 


Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee Fountain

Location: Auchencairn, Dumfries & Galloway, Scotland

A drinking fountain, lamp & trough located in the Square has been a fixture since the late 19th century. It was funded with public subscriptions and erected in commemoration of Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee in 1897. The fountain which was only one of a few water sources in the very early 1900s also offered water to horses.

The project to restore the fountain was undertaken in 2009 by Roy Wilson who was an active member of the Auchencairn Initiative (a community fundraising organization). The structure was cleaned, repaired and repainted by Ray Innes of Innes Design Centre, a local British Industrial Design Engineer.

The structure was manufactured by Coalbrookdale Company of Shropshire, England and was originally seated on an octagonal stone plinth. A thick circular pedestal supported a large round trough from which overflow water fed a shallow trough at ground level for the use of smaller animals. During the late 20th century (post 1996) the plinth was extended using cobblestones creating a circular shape, and the short pedestal and shallow drain forming a trough for dogs was removed.

Beneath the capital of a short column rising from the centre of the trough are two decorative consoles from which drinking cups were originally suspended on chains. The decorative fluted lamp pillar with yoke maintenance arms was surmounted with a gas globe (Bray’s Flat Flame Lantern System.)

The manufacturer’s name is located on the trough basin, and on the fluted pedestal is a decorative shield inscribed with a dedication; Jubilee Lamp / Erected By / Public / Subscription / 1897.

Glossary:

  • Bray’s Flat Flame Lantern System, a cluster of wide flat burners within a glass lantern in which the upper portion was white opaque glass to reflect the light downward
  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Fluted, a long rounded groove
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests.
  • Yoke maintenance arms, the bars near the top of a street light which supported the lamplighter’s ladder

Columbus Man and Beast Fountain

Location: Columbus, Georgia, USA

In 1890, a contract between the Water Works Company and the city included provision of an ornamental fountain to be placed in front of the courthouse (this fountain is now located at Fourth Street and Broadway.) Three other Victorian fountains situated along Broadway clarify the adopted name of Fountain City.

Design #14 by J. L. Mott Iron Works of New York has a circular base with a trough for dogs at street level and a short bulbous pedestal decorated with flora. The cornice, decorated with acanthus frieze, sits beneath the capital which supports a finial resembling an urn surmounted with globe. A lion mascaron spouts water into a fluted basin designed for human use. A large trough for horses is located on the opposite side.

A historic marker furnished with details is located on site; Fit For Man And Beast / This watering fountain at Broadway and 10th / Street represents the last one of several located / in each block down Broadway. It is Columbus’ / oldest public fountain, dating back to the earliest / days of the city. Called the Man and Beast / fountain. It contains three watering bowls, one / at street level for dogs, a large one in the middle / for horses, and a medium-sized one near the top / for people. Although we no longer go to public / fountains to collect drinking water, fountains / offer our community an identity and sense of / history in our public spaces. / Erected By / Historic Columbus Foundation, Inc. / Historic Chattahoochee Commission / 2008

hmdb marker

Glossary:

  • Acanthus, one of the most common plant forms (deeply cut leaves) to make foliage ornament and decoration
  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Cornice, a molding or ornamentation that projects from the top of a building
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Fluted, a long rounded groove decorating the shaft of a column
  • Frieze, the horizontal part of a classical moulding just below the cornice, often decorated with carvings
  • Mascaron, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face or head of a human being or an animal

Pedestal


Brattleboro Drinking Fountain/Horse Trough

Location: Brattleboro, Vermont, USA

A cast iron drinking fountain for the use of man and beast was erected on the corner of Main Street and High Street in July 1872. It was located near the old oak tree in the hope that the water source would discourage the consumption of beer and alcohol. In 1875 complaints that there was little water flow may have been the reason that its usage declined.

Photographic evidence reveals that the fountain was still in place in 1907. The date when it was replaced with a fire hydrant is unknown as is the fate of the fountain.

The manufacturer of the cast iron octagonal pedestal fountain which offered a supply of drinking water to humans, horses and smaller animals is unknown. Inset arched panels and rosettes decorated the pedestal. A fluted, recessed, demi-lune basin with a cup suspended on a chain offered a drinking receptacle for humans. On the opposite side a fluted trough was offered for the refreshment of horses. Water flowed from lion mascarons into the horse trough and the small fluted demi-lune basin situated at ground level for the convenience of dogs.

same model

This fountain in San Francisco is the same model but manufacturer is unknown

Glossary:

  • Demilune, half moon or crescent shape
  • Fluted, a long rounded groove
  • Mascaron, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face or head of a human being or an animal
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Rosette, a round stylized flower design