Monthly Archives: March 2016

Smithfield Cattle Market Drinking Fountain

Location: Welshpool, Powys, Wales

The economy of Welshpool which was based upon agriculture created the establishment of the Smithfield Livestock Market in 1863. Horses, cattle and dogs that travelled to local markets required water for drinking which created a need for water troughs. In the Victorian period the troughs were identified on maps and were referred to as filling stations.

The stone troughs at the Smithfield cattle market formed a moat that surrounded a cast iron drinking fountain accessed via three stone steps. The fountain was removed during World War II to be recycled as armaments. During the First World War the horse repository in Smithfield was used as a prisoner of war camp.

peoples

Used with permission, Creative Archive Licence. http://www.peoplescollection.wales/items/10915

Drinking fountain number 8 from Walter Macfarlane & Co.’s catalogue was manufactured at the Saracen Foundry at Possilpark in Glasgow. The structure was 9 feet 6 inches high and consisted of four columns, from the capitals of which consoles with griffin terminals united with arches formed of decorated mouldings.

Rope moulded cartouches within each lunette host the image of a crane, or optional memorial shields. On two of the sides provision was made for receiving an inscription using raised metal letters; whilst on the other two sides was the useful monition, Keep The Pavement Dry. Civic virtues such as temperance were often extolled in inscriptions on drinking fountains. The structure was surmounted by an open filigree dome, the finial being a crown with a pattée cross.

Under the canopy stood the font (design number 7) 5 foot 8 inches high. The basin which had a scalloped edge and decorative relief was supported by a single decorative pedestal with four pilasters and four descending salamanders. A central urn with four consoles offered drinking cups suspended by chains. The terminal was a crane.

Symbolism was popular in Victorian times. Griffins are symbolic of guardians of priceless possessions, salamanders display bravery and courage that cannot be extinguished by fire, and cranes are recognized as a symbol of vigilance.

Glossary

  • Capital: The top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Cartouche, a structure or figure, often in the shape of an oval shield or oblong scroll, used as an architectural or graphic ornament or to bear a design or inscription
  • Console: a decorative bracket support element
  • Filigree, fine ornamental work
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Fret, running or repeated ornament
  • Griffin, winged lion denotes vigilance and strength, guards treasure and priceless possessions
  • Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
  • Pattée cross, a cross with arms that narrow at the centre and flare out at the perimeter
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Pilaster, a column form that is only ornamental and not supporting a structure
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal
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Iowa W.C.T.U. Fountains

Location: Edgewood, Iowa, USA

This drinking fountain, located on the corner of East Madison and North Washington Streets, was erected by the W.C.T.U. (Women’s Christian Temperance Union) in the hope that a drink of cool water would prevent men from quenching their thirsts in the local taverns. It was dedicated in memory of Thera B. True who served the local union as secretary for 9 years and president of the local union for 19 years, before holding the office of district president for 10 years.

The drinking fountain consists of a four sided pedestal with panels containing a quatrefoil design with a small circle in each corner of the panel. A chamfered edge supports the upper pedestal containing 4 trapezoid panels for dedication, and an inscription, In Loving / Memory Of / Thera B True / From WCTU. A frieze of acanthus surrounds the capital which supports a fluted urn with egg and dart edge. Water is provided via a bubbler.

It was restored in 2015 due to the efforts of Rosemary Totman of Edgewood who purchased and renovated a bank building and the attached clock on the front of the building. Donations from local groups and individuals funded the restoration of the clock. With a desire to also restore the drinking fountain permission was given by the Town’s elders and completed using a portion of the funds raised to restore the bank clock. The fountain was re-plumbed by the City’s maintenance department and the surface finished by a powder coating company in Farley, Iowa.

Location: Shenandoah, Page County, Iowa

The second W.C.T.U. drinking fountain is located in downtown Shenandoah, a few feet from the flatiron building at Clarinda and Sheridan Streets. It was erected in 1912 to honour Mrs. Lavina Nichols, the founder of the Shenandoah W.C.T.U. Chapter.

The cast iron structure manufactured by J.L. Mott Iron Works consists of a four sided pedestal seated on a square foundation with attic base. Receptacles on three sides consist of two circular basins supported by scroll consoles and a third fluted demi-lune basin attached directly to the pedestal into which a lion mascaron spouts water. A small basin at ground level is available for the use of dogs. A dedication plaque on the east side is inscribed, Dedicated In Memory Of Mrs. H.S. Nichols, WCTU, 1912. And Also For God And Home And Every Land. Mrs. Nichols was the founder of the local W.C.T.U. chapter and wife of former Mayor H.S. Nichols.

A garland frieze sits beneath the capital which currently supports a lamp post with a neon sign identifying W.C.T.U., both of which were added to the structure circa 1922.

It is likely that the original lamp was in the form of an Olympic torch with acanthus relief, a framework of bands with Corinthian columns that terminated in four finials to create the form of a crown (this design can be found on a drinking fountain in Fredonia NYS).

mott lamp

The fountain was added to the National Register of Historic Places on 27 September 1984.

Glossary:

  • Acanthus, one of the most common plant forms (deeply cut leaves) to make foliage ornament and decoration
  • Attic base, a column base with two rings
  • Bubbler, a fountain with a tap which ejects a stream of water
  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Chamfer, a beveled edge
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Corinthian Column, a fluted shaft with flowers and leaves at the capital.
  • Demilune, half moon or crescent shape
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Frieze, the horizontal part of a classical moulding just below the cornice, often decorated with carvings
  • Mascaron, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face or head of a human being or an animal
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Quatrefoil, a type of decorative framework consisting of a symmetrical shape which forms the overall outline of four partially-overlapping circles of the same diameter
  • Trapezoid, a square with only two parallel sides

 


Queen Victoria Memorial

Location: Vancouver, B.C., Canada

Located in Stanley park near the Vancouver Rowing Club, this drinking fountain memorial was erected a year after Queen Victoria’s death. The project was funded by school children selling black edged memorial cards that recorded the Queen’s birth, coronation and death. A gala concert was also held.

The memorial, constructed with Nelson granite at the top of a flight of steps, was unveiled by the Premier Sir Richard McBride in 24 May 1906 (the Queen’s birthday).

On each side of the memorial are pillars embedded with a crest. The shield on the right hand side is the Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom and may be used only by the Monarch. On the left, the shield displays entwined serpents; this is the coat of arms for the City of Vancouver designed by James Bloomfield.

The drinking fountain flanked by stone seats is embedded in a granite column. The bronze bas-relief was designed by James Bloomfield and cast in England. The left facing cameo of Queen Victoria’s head is the same image used on the 1897 Diamond Jubilee medals and medallions.

The inscription states, In Memory Of / Victoria The Good / This Monument Is / Erected By The / School Children / Of Vancouver 1905.

Beneath the inscription is a lion mascaron with flowing mane that spouts water into a demi-lune basin. The original drinking cups suspended by chains are no longer present.

Glossary:

  • Bas-relief, sculpted material that has been raised from the background to create a slight projection from the surface
  • Demi-lune, half moon or crescent shape
  • Mascaron, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face or head of a human being or an animal

 


Redcar Drinking Fountain

Location: Redcar, North Yorkshire, England

The great need for a drinking fountain in the mid-19th century in the town of Redcar was fulfilled when funding was supplied by subscription and a donation from the Earl of Zetland. The ornate cast iron drinking fountain outside Potts Cottage in the High Street was demolished when a car collided with it in 1923.

Drinking fountain number 8 from Walter Macfarlane & Co.’s catalogue was manufactured at the Saracen Foundry at Possilpark in Glasgow. The structure was 9 feet 6 inches high and consisted of four columns, from the capitals of which consoles with griffin terminals united with arches formed of decorated mouldings.

Rope moulded cartouches within each lunette hosted the image of a crane. On two of the sides provision was made for receiving an inscription using raised metal letters; whilst on the other two sides was the useful monition, Keep The Pavement Dry. Civic virtues such as temperance were often extolled in inscriptions on drinking fountains. The structure is surmounted by an open filigree dome, the finial being a crown with extended spike (terminal #231).

Under the canopy stood the font (design number 7) 5 foot 8 inches high. The basin which had a scalloped edge and decorative relief was supported by a single decorative pedestal with four pilasters and four descending salamanders, a symbol of courage and bravery. A central urn with four consoles offered drinking cups suspended by chains. The terminal was a crane.

Symbolism was popular in Victorian times. Griffins are symbolic of guardians of priceless possessions, salamanders display bravery and courage that cannot be extinguished by fire, and cranes are recognized as a symbol of vigilance.

 The description in the catalogue read: The structure consists of four columns, from the capitals of which consoles with griffin terminals unite with arches formed of decorative mouldings, encircling ornamental shields. On two of the sides provision is made for receiving an inscription; whilst on the other two sides is the useful monition, “Keep the Pavement Dry.” Surmounting this is an open and highly enriched dome, the apex being occupied by a crown. Under the canopy stands the font, with basin 2 feet 6 inches in diameter. Price, ready for fitting up, with four water supply taps, and four drinking cups, delivered in Glasgow:- £27.10.0

 Glossary

  • Capital: The top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Cartouche, a structure or figure, often in the shape of an oval shield or oblong scroll, used as an architectural or graphic ornament or to bear a design or inscription
  • Console: a decorative bracket support element
  • Filigree, fine ornamental work
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Fret, running or repeated ornament
  • Griffin, winged lion denotes vigilance and strength, guards treasure and priceless possessions
  • Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Pilaster, a column form that is only ornamental and not supporting a structure
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

Promenade Fountain

Location: Porthcawl, Wales

In the early 19th century Stoneleigh House on John Street was a girls’ boarding school and college. A cast iron drinking fountain was inset to the front wall surrounding the property.

peoples_stoneleigh

Creative Commons License. Source: http://www.peoplescollectionwales.co.uk/items/13157

The fountain was later relocated to the shelter on the promenade opposite the Seabank Hotel. Several of the original embellishments no longer exist and it is not functional at the present time.

The font, design number 17 (4 feet 5 inches high) from Walter Macfarlane’s catalogue, was manufactured by the Saracen Foundry in Glasgow, Scotland. The design utilizes features of the canopy used in drinking fountain number 8, and is surmounted by a palmette finial. Griffin terminals once flanked a highly decorated arch outlined with rope detail which also encircled a medallion hosting the image of a crane. The recessed interior of the arch contains a shell lunette from which a tap protrudes. A single drinking cup on a chain was suspended above a fluted demi-lune basin.

Saracen_Wall Font_Saracen 17

Original manufacturer’s design

Glossary

  • Demi-lune, half moon or crescent shape
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Griffin, winged lion denotes vigilance and strength, guards treasure and priceless possessions
  • Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
  • Palmette, a decorative motif resembling the fan shaped leaves of a palm tree
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

Goyder Memorial Lamp and Drinking Fountain

Location: Katoomba, New South Wales, Australia

Alderman Frederick Charles Goyder was a businessman who owned Goyder Auctioneers and the Carrington Hotel, a premier tourist resort in the Southern Hemisphere. He was a Justice of the Peace and became the first Mayor of Katoomba, serving from 1890 -1891.

In 1900, the year of his death (18 Jan 1900), discussions were held regarding a memorial lamp and drinking fountain. It was erected on 26 June 1901 in the centre of Katoomba Street near the railway station.

In July 1914 Katoomba Municipal Council adopted a recommendation to remove the drinking fountain attached to the Goyder memorial lamp and re-erect it on the footpath near the railway gates. The lamp was also relocated to the corner of Park and Main Streets.

flickr_bluemtslocalstudies

Creative Commons License, Blue Mountains City Library

The font, design number 7 from Walter Macfarlane’s catalogue manufactured at the Saracen Foundry in Glasgow, was a single pedestal basin with four decorative columns rising from an octagonal plinth. Four salamanders descended the fountain pedestal as a symbol of courage and bravery. The basin had a scalloped edge and decorative relief. A central urn with four consoles offered drinking cups suspended by chains. The terminal was a crane recognized as a symbol of vigilance. The fountain, visible in the lower right corner of the image above, was operated by pulling on one of four levers which released water.

Saracen_Font_7

This is what the fountain looked like. Saracen Foundry Casting 7

Glossary:

  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal.