Category Archives: England

Lion Mascaron Pillar Fountains

Designed and manufactured by Glenfield & Kennedy Ltd. this late 19th century design was advertised as Kennedy’s patent, self-closing, anti-freezing pillar fountain. It consists of a fluted cast iron cylindrical column with moulded domed cap and small finial resembling a pineapple.

Water was drawn from a well by a wind pump and delivered by gravity from a reservoir. The water which was released by turning a decorative knob was located directly above a lion mascaron spout. It was captured in a tin cup suspended on a chain from the domed top. A small demi-lune trough at ground level captured overflow water for the use of dogs. Some models used a lever on the side to release the water and had an integral bucket platform located just above the base of the column.

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Clifton-on-Teme, Hereford & Worcester, England. Manufacturer’s stamp on the base, Glenfield Coy Ltd.

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Source: Scottish Ironwork Foundation. Photo by John P. Bolton

Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England. The instruction, Turn the Handle is redundant as the handle is missing. A legend beneath the lion mascaron states, Waste Not Want Not.

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Ticknall, South Derbyshire, England. Located east of Hayes Farmhouse. It was erected 1914 at the behest of Sir Vauncey Harpur-Crewe of Calke Abbey. Bucket platform & lever are visible.

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Washinborough, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England. Located on the High Street this model contains an integral bucket platform. The manufacturer’s stamp is located beneath the lion mascaron, Glenfield & Kennedy Co. Kilmarnock.

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Source: Flickr/Alan Saxman

Port Stanley, Falkland Islands. Manufacturer’s name is visible on the rear.

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Source: Scottish Ironwork Foundation. Photo by R Williams

Kelso, Scottish Borders, Scotland. Currently located at Ednam House Hotel.

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Source: Scottish Ironwork Foundation. Photo by John P. Bolton

Kilmun, Argyll & Bute, Scotland. Located within the church graveyard it is a unique example with the original cup and chain. A spigot projects from the lion’s mouth.

Midlem, Scottish Borders, Scotland. 

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Source: Scottish Ironwork Foundation. Photo by John P. Bolton

Peebles, Scottish Borders, Scotland. 

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Source: Scottish Ironwork Foundation. Photo by John P. Bolton

Stirling, Scotland. Dog trough at base. The manufacturer’s name is located on the column within the trough.

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Source: Scottish Ironwork Foundation. Photo by John P. Bolton

Stromness, Orkney Islands, Scotland. This model contains an integral bucket platform and a modern tap.

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Source: Scottish Ironwork Foundation. Photo by John P. Bolton

Moniaive, Dumfries& Galloway, Scotland. Located at the base of steps leading to a gated entrance to Glencairn Church Graveyard. Painted white with a lever on the side.

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Source: Scottish Ironwork Foundation. Photo by John P. Bolton

Killala, Co. Mayo, Ireland. Located at Seaview Terrace, the manufacturer’s stamp is visible beneath the lion mascaron, Glenfield & Kennedy Co. Kilmarnock

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Source: Flickr/JohnnyG

Glossary:

  • Demi-lune, half moon or crescent shape
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Fluted, a long rounded groove
  • Mascaron, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face or head of a human being or an animal

Wallasey Drinking Fountains

Location: Wallasey, Merseyside, England

Harrison Park which was presented to the Town in 1896 by the Harrison family in memory of their parents is home to a unique cast iron drinking fountain. Manufactured by the Scottish firm of Glenfield & Kennedy Ltd. it was restored during regeneration of the park in 2003.

The pillar fountain advertised as model D34 has a square base with a Greek geometric design often associated with Alexander Thomson. Four panels edged with rope frieze contain lion mascarons and a sun/flower orb. One of the panels identifies the manufacturer; Glenfield & / Kennedy / Limited / Kilmarnock.

Four basins with scalloped edge are located beneath the lion heads which spout water. Drinking water was originally captured in tin cups and overflow water fell into the basin and was directed to small troughs at ground level for the use of animals. The capital supports a base with dog tooth frieze surmounted by a putto blowing a horn with a stylized dolphin resting at his feet. A new casting of this statue was created as part of the fountain’s restoration.

 

A second drinking fountain was located at the Pier Head tram terminus in New Brighton. Design number 19 was manufactured by the Saracen Foundry in Glasgow. Seated on an octagonal plinth, it had a wide base with canted corners supporting a circular shaft ornamented with water lilies. Four lion jambs supported four highly decorated quatrefoil basins. The stanchion and central column were decorated with floral relief and projecting acanthus.

The lamp pillar contained four protruding consoles which suspended drinking cups on chains. The column terminated in an elaborate design featuring two lanterns. Symbolism was popular in Victorian times and lions were symbolic of guardianship.


Glossary

  • Acanthus, one of the most common plant forms (deeply cut leaves) to make foliage ornament and decoration
  • Canted corner, an angled surface which cuts of a corner
  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Frieze, the horizontal part of a classical moulding just below the cornice, often decorated with carvings
  • Jamb, a projecting vertical post containing sculpture
  • Mascaron, a decorative element in the form of a sculpted face or head of a human being or an animal
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests
  • Putto, a figure in a work of art depicted as a chubby male child, usually nude
  • Quatrefoil, a type of decorative framework consisting of a symmetrical shape which forms the overall outline of four partially-overlapping circles of the same diameter
  • Stanchion, an upright bar or post providing support

Jubilee Lamp Fountain

Location: Ringwood, Hampshire, England

A cast iron drinking fountain situated in Market Place was constructed in 1887 to commemorate Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee.

It was refurbished in 1977, recorded as a Grade II historic building on 12 March 1987 and restored and repainted by JW Lighting Specialists (UK) Limited in 2013.

The design was registered by George Smith & Co. and manufactured by the Sun Foundry. It is seated on a two tiered octagonal plinth. A compass cross base with canted corners supports a central pedestal and four columns decorated with diamond frieze and nail head molding.

The font (design #13) is a large basin with dog tooth relief on the rim, partitioned by four foliate consoles from which cups were suspended on chains. Shell motif spouts on each side released water flow.

The highly decorated lamp pillar #13a is further enhanced with a crown and dedication plaque; Erected / By Public / Subscription / To / Commemorate / The Jubilee / Of The Reign Of / Her Majesty / Queen Victoria / 1887. Four consoles support additional lanterns lit by gas; the pillar is terminated with a central lantern.

Glossary:

  • Canted corner, an angled surface which cuts of a corner
  • Compass cross, a cross of equal vertical and horizontal lengths, concentric with and overlaying a circle.
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Dog tooth relief, pyramid shaped carving
  • Foliate, decorated with leaves or leaf like motif
  • Frieze, the horizontal part of a classical moulding just below the cornice, often decorated with carvings
  • Nail head molding, a series of low four-sided pyramids
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests.

Wall Inset Models – Saracen #17

Location: Eire and England

The font, casting number 17 (4’5” x 2’10”) from Walter Macfarlane’s catalogue, was manufactured by the Saracen Foundry in Glasgow, Scotland. The design utilizes features of the canopy used in drinking fountain number 8, and is surmounted by a palmette finial. Griffin terminals flank a highly decorated arch outlined with rope detail which also encircles a medallion hosting the image of a crane. The recessed interior of the arch contains a shell lunette from which a tap protruded. A single drinking cup on a chain was originally suspended above a fluted demi-lune basin.

Sometimes, no matter how much I research, there is little information available online. Such is the case with the following drinking fountains.

The fountain at Athlone Railway Station in Ireland has been neglected as evidenced by rust and the missing medallion.

A pair of drinking fountains set into the wall at Viking Bay in Broadstairs, Kent, England, also show rust. The crane medallion is still in place.

Symbolism was popular in Victorian times. Griffins are symbolic of guardians of priceless possessions, and cranes, recognized as a symbol of vigilance, are often depicted standing on one leg while holding a stone in the claws of the other foot. Legend states that if the watchful crane fell asleep the stone would fall and waken the bird.

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Creative commons license, Paul Harrop. Source: http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/5535723

The following examples are the same model; however, the medallion has been customized.

A drinking fountain embedded into a wall at the entrance to the Old School Tea Room car park in Falstone, Northumberland, England, was installed to commemorate Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee. The standard crane medallion was replaced with the left facing profile of Queen Victoria.

The medallion in a polished and lacquered version of design #17 hosts a lion passant guardant meaning it is walking while looking towards you (on guard). I have been unable to find a similar heraldic image to explain this customization. The item was sold in 2009 by an auction house following salvage from a Wimbledon home in England.

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Source: Scottish Ironwork Foundation

Glossary

  • Demi-lune, half moon or crescent shape
  • Finial, a sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure
  • Griffin, winged lion denotes vigilance and strength, guards treasure and priceless possessions
  • Lunette, the half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting
  • Palmette, a decorative motif resembling the fan shaped leaves of a palm tree
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

 


Stowmarket Council School Memorial Drinking Fountain

Location: Stowmarket, Suffolk, England

A cast iron structure located just inside the War Memorial gates on Finborough Road was purchased as a memorial to past students who gave their lives during the First World War. The drinking fountain was installed in the Recreation Ground opened on 1 May 1920 by Mr. George Ormes, chairman of the Stowmarket Urban District Council’s War Memorial Committee.

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In 1961 Queen Elizabeth II’s visit to Suffolk included an exhibition of local industry, arts, crafts and agricultural produce in the Recreation Ground at Stowmarket. To provide ease of access to the Queen’s vehicle the fountain was moved to the western corner of the park. It was not returned to its original location until 2007 following restoration of the structure.

The drinking fountain was recorded as a Grade II historic listed building on 20 February 2017.

The 6’ 2” drinking fountain, design number 18, was manufactured by Walter Macfarlane’s Saracen Foundry in Glasgow, Scotland. Seated on a two tiered square plinth, it has a wide base in the form of a St. Andrew’s cross with canted corners, on which is set a circular shaft ornamented with water lilies. Four lion jambs support four highly decorated quatrefoil basins. Three sides of the central obelisk contain swan and bird relief. The fourth side contains a dedication; This Drinking Fountain / Was Presented / To The Town Of / Stowmarket / By The Children Of The / Adjacent Senior Council / School In Memory Of / Those Old Scholar s/ Who Made The / Supreme Sacrifice / In The Great War / 1914-18. A kylix-shaped vase terminal with four consoles originally offered drinking cups suspended by chains.

Symbolism was popular in Victorian times. Griffins are symbolic of guardians of priceless possessions; lions are symbolic of guardianship; owls are symbolic of guardians of the afterlife, and eagles represent immortality.

Glossary

  • Canted corner, an angled surface which cuts of a corner
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Jamb, a projecting vertical post containing sculpture
  • Kylix, a Grecian style drinking cup
  • Obelisk, a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape at the top
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests
  • Quatrefoil, a type of decorative framework consisting of a symmetrical shape which forms the overall outline of four partially-overlapping circles of the same diameter
  • Stanchion, upright bar or post providing support
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

 


Clock Tower Fountain

Location: Mitcham, Surrey, England

On 29 November 1899, a clock tower and cast iron drinking fountain was unveiled by James Salter White, chairman of the Croydon Rural District Council. The structure was funded by public subscription to commemorate Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee of 1897.

It was erected on the site of the old village pump in an area which was a rally point for Evangelists and politicians, fundraising, and events such as recruitment for the war and the inspection of Red Cross nurses by visiting Royalty.

The structure was controversial as many residents were unhappy that the old pump had been removed, and the clock became well known for its unreliability due to condensation affecting the clock’s mechanism. It was not uncommon for each of the four faces to show a different time.

The drinking fountain erected on London Road adjacent to the Buck’s Head pub and opposite the King’s Arms was relocated several times within Fair Green to allow for regeneration of the area. A controversial move in 1994, part of London Road was closed to traffic to create a pedestrian area and market place. It is within this pedestrian area that the structure is currently situated.

On 2 September 1988, it was listed as a Grade II historic building. In 2014 funding from the Heritage Lottery Fund enabled the town to undertake restoration of the historic structure; a water supply was connected to the drinking fountain, a new weather vane was installed, and the clock was refurbished by Surrey-based specialist clock makers Gillett & Johnston (the clock hands are not to the original design).

The newly restored structure was erected on 26th August 2015 with bespoke lanterns installed in 2016 to illuminate the clock face. (The original four gas lamps were replaced during the advent of electricity.)

The structure manufactured by McDowall Steven & Co. Ltd. is approximately 7m high and was seated on a two tiered octagonal plinth originally with two dog troughs at ground level. Two large demi-lune basins protrude from the pedestal beneath which the maker’s nameplate is visible, McDowall Steven & Co. / Limited / London & Glasgow.

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Four dolphins (dolphins are a symbolic protector of all things related to water) at each corner of the stanchion create sections decorated with a shell pattern, floral relief and a crest engraved V.R. 1897 which is a reference to the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. Two drinking cups were once suspended on chains.

The capital supports a fluted lamp column with attic base. The column is decorated with swags, a shield bearing a cross and stylized flowers flanked by leaves. Four consoles offered a gas light source from a glass paned lantern the top of which was decorated with palmette relief and a terminal resembling castle turrets.

Four beaded consoles divided by a flower sit just beneath the four clock faces. Each clock panel is bound by fan spandrels. A gable roof is adorned by a spike at each peak and bas-relief of a crown in the pediment.

A closed urn with four knob pendants supports a weather vane with directional compass points and a directional arrow with butterfly wings.

 

Glossary:

  • Attic base, a column base with two rings
  • Bas-relief, sculpted material that has been raised from the background to create a slight projection from the surface
  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Demi-lune, half moon or crescent shape
  • Fluted, a long rounded groove
  • Gable, triangular portion of a wall between edges of a dual pitched roof
  • Palmette, a decorative motif resembling the fan shaped leaves of a palm tree
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Pediment, an element in architecture consisting of a gable placed above a horizontal structure supported by columns
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests.
  • Spandrel, the triangular space between two arches
  • Stanchion, upright bar, post or frame providing support
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal

Harlesden Golden Jubilee Clock/Fountain

Location: Harlesden, London, England

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Known as the Clock Tower this structure located in the High Street was originally also a drinking fountain. It was erected in 1888 to commemorate Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee which had been celebrated a year earlier.

With the advent of the motor vehicle it became a traffic hazard; at least two trams derailed and collided with the clock which resulted in one of the four decorative arms being damaged. As a result, on 20th March 1939 the Clock Tower was relocated three metres from its original position to ease navigation in the area.

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The basins no longer appear on images of this time period.

7-lamps_pinterest_1409The shape of the lanterns has changed and they no longer have crown terminals. Possibly due to the transition to electric light.

8-lamps2_pinterest_3145The image above shows that the lamps have been replaced again. The shape has changed and the glass is now frosted/opaque.

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The image above is from the 1950’s era. The lamps no longer exist and the structure has been painted red.

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Used with permission, John Moone. Source:http://www.themoones.co.uk/nw10.html

Circa 60s -70s and there is no weather vane visible.

The Jubilee Clock was recorded as a Grade II listed building on 23 Jan 1974. The tower was renovated in 1992 and again in 1997 when it was painted red, gold and black.

In 2014 the structure was temporarily removed as part of a £4.5 million regeneration project of the town centre. The Jubilee Clock, refurbished in its original colour scheme, was unveiled on 14 February 2015 at the new semi-pedestrian section of the High Street.

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The original structure manufactured by Steven Bros & Co. of London and Glasgow was seated on a square plinth with two dog troughs at ground level. Two large demi-lune basins protruded from the pedestal beneath which a dedication was inscribed: Erected by public subscription A.D. 1887. Directly above was the maker’s nameplate, Steven Bros. & Co. London & Glasgow.

An additional dedication on the base presumably refers to members of the committee that managed the project; C. J. Class Esq. Chairman / John Soper Esq. Treasurer / C. Coldney-Cary Esq. Sub / Jas Maxwell Esq. Committee / Wm. Orme Wedlake Esq. / Hon. Secretary

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Four dolphins at each corner of the stanchion created sections decorated with a shell pattern, floral relief and a crest above which were a crown and two rosettes. Two drinking cups were suspended on chains.

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Creative Commons License, Mike Quinn. Source: http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/2751729

The capital supported a fluted lamp pillar with attic base. The pillar was decorated with swags, a shield bearing a cross and stylized flowers flanked by leaves. Four consoles offered a gas light source from a glass paned lantern the top of which was decorated with palmette relief and a terminal resembling castle turrets.

Four beaded consoles divided by a flower sat just beneath the four clock faces. Each clock panel was bound by fan spandrels. A gable roof was adorned by a spike at each peak and bas-relief of a crown in the pediment.

A closed urn with 4 knob pendants originally supported a weather vane with directional compass points and a directional arrow with butterfly wings.

Note of thanks and appreciation: I would like to acknowledge John Bolton from the Scottish Ironwork Foundation who brought my attention to this structure and who has been a welcome, boundless, source of information and assistance on many of my posts on items manufactured by Scottish Iron Foundries. 

Glossary:

  • Attic base, a column base with two rings
  • Bas-relief, sculpted material that has been raised from the background to create a slight projection from the surface
  • Capital, the top of a column that supports the load bearing down on it
  • Console, a decorative bracket support element
  • Demi-lune, half moon or crescent shape
  • Fluted, a long rounded groove
  • Gable, triangular portion of a wall between edges of a dual pitched roof
  • Palmette, a decorative motif resembling the fan shaped leaves of a palm tree
  • Pedestal, an architectural support for a column or statue
  • Pediment, an element in architecture consisting of a gable placed above a horizontal structure supported by columns
  • Plinth, flat base usually projecting, upon which a pedestal, wall or column rests.
  • Rosette, a round stylized flower design
  • Spandrel, the triangular space between two arches
  • Stanchion, upright bar, post or frame providing support
  • Terminal, statue or ornament that stands on a pedestal